Articles

Surviving in a Deregulated Strategic World image

Russian-American strategic relations are entering uncharted waters with the demise of the arms control regime; rapid technological revolution; the rise of nuclear multipolarity; the asymmetry of the two countries’ positions amid their growing confrontation and an increasing likelihood of military con...

Now when the U.S. presidential elections are over the fate of the START Treaty and nuclear arms control, in general, has become clearer.

The New START treaty is set to expire on February 5, 2021, and only a few months ago there was little doubt that it would be the end of it. The Trump administratio...

Vladimir Orlov: “Russia and the United States should resume a comprehensive dialogue on global nuclear proliferation threats” image

On January 19, 2021, Dr. Vladimir A. Orlov, Director of the PIR Center, gave an interview to Security Index journal.

 

SECURITY INDEX: In your recent op-ed column, co-authored with Sergey Semenov and published by Kommersant Daily, you stated that “Russia and the United States, as major nuclear-weapo...

Vladimir Orlov, Sergey Semenov

PIR Center experts Vladimir Orlov and Sergey Semenov discuss the prospects for the Russian-American dialogue on arms control.

President Trump`s legacy in arms control resembles smoldering ruins. And the ruins are covered with a dense fog. For the first time since the end of the Cold War Moscow and W...

Russian International Affairs Council

July 1, 2020

 

For Russia, the military developments and strategies of the United States recreate those challenges and threats that the USSR associated with President Ronald Reagan’s Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Adopted in 1984, the SDI programme involved...

All articles

Experts

Akhtamzyan, Ildar A. image
Affiliation : Associate Professor, Department of International Relations and Russian Foreign Policy, Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO University) of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation
Position : Assistant Professor
Expertise :
Nuclear nonproliferation, historical aspects
Nuclear power in the Middle East
Biography :

PhD. in Historical Sciences. Graduated from Moscow State Institute of International Relations in 1979 and since that time has been working for that Institute as a graduate student, lecturer, senior lecturer, associate professor of the History of international relations and foreign policy Department. Author of the first national course on nonproliferation (MGIMO). Participated as a lecturer in the Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute. Author of more than 60 publications in Russia and abroad on the history of international relations, arms control and nonproliferation, including two books of collected documents related to these problems. PIR Center Advisory Board member since 2002.

Blix Hans image
City : Stokholm
Biography :

Politician, diplomat. From 2000 to 2003 served as Head of the UN Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC); in 1987-1997 – as the Director General of IAEA; in 1978-1979 – as the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Sweden. From 1961 to 1981 Hans Blix was a member of the Swedish delegation to the UN General Assembly. From 1962 to 1978 He was a member of the Swedish delegation at the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva. Hans Blix obtained law degree at Cambridge (UK), and the Universities of Uppsala (Sweden) and Columbia (USA), received the degree of Doctor of Law at Stockholm University (Sweden).

Gennady Evstafiev image
Biography :

Lieutenant-General (ret.) Evstafiev (25.08.1938 – 19.02.2013), a person of great fortitude, wisdom, and professionalism, dedicated all his health, strength, and intellect to serving his country and strengthening international security. We are very honored to have been able to work with such an amazing and knowledgeable person.

One of the patriarchs of nuclear nonproliferation has left us. No matter what office he held, Gennady Mikhailovich made considerable contributions to strengthen the nonproliferation and disarmament regime.  From 1981 to 1985, he served as Special Assistant to the UN Secretary-General, and from 1999-2000 as a member of the Secretary-General’s Advisory Board on Disarmament Matters. He was an active participant in the historical 1995 NPT Review and Extension Conference, as well as the Moscow Nuclear Safety and Security Summit in 1996.

Gennady Mikhailovich played a key role in preparing the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service’s public reports “A New Challenge After the Cold War: Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction” (1993) and “The Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons: Problems of Extension” (1995), which are still used today as key reference materials in the field. To this day, the publication of these reports remains an example of special services’ analytic work and ability to engage the public in dialogue. Thanks to the work of these authors, the world saw that Russia bases its arguments on facts and, no matter the circumstances, independently participates in the formation of a global nonproliferation and disarmament agenda.

Lieutenant-General Evstafiev was one of the people who, during the country’s hardest times, not only stayed dedicated to the task at hand, but was also able find solutions to global problems in a spirit of collaboration and while protecting national interests. From 1986 to 1991, Gennady Mikhailovich was one of the head Soviet delegates during the negotiation of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE Treaty) in Vienna before he went on to work for the Foreign Intelligence Service. From 2000-2003, he served at the Russian Permanent Mission to NATO, where he worked on combating terrorism and WMD proliferation. After retiring in 2003, he became a Senior Advisor and later Senior Vice President at the PIR Center, where he continued to dedicate himself to arms control issues and developing new security mechanisms in Europe.

For Gennady Mikhailovich, strengthening the nonproliferation and disarmament regime wasn’t just political rhetoric, it was a subject of in-depth analysis with the goal of finding optimal, balanced solutions. Back when people had essentially stopped thinking about saving the world from weapons of mass destruction, before big speeches and initiatives revived the topic, Gennady Mikhailovich published the article “Disarmament Returns” (Security Index 2007), in which he not only declared the acute relevance of this problem, he defined the lines along which this discussion takes place today. “The main mistake that people make is they fear today’s troubles more than tomorrow’s,” he said, and underlined that, “this means only one thing – we must learn to preempt the consequences of new military technology and classes of weapons with timely political and legal measures.”

This is precisely what Gennady Mikhailovich worked on at the PIR Center. He co-authored a 2005 monograph Unmanned aerial vehicles: history, application, threat of proliferation, and prospects of development – the first work to define the importance of this issue for Russia. Information security, nuclear energy and nonproliferation, Central Asia – Evstafiev was a part of these and many other PIR projects from the outset. Dozens of publications, hundreds of interviews and comments to the press – he was constantly working.

He will most certainly be remembered, today and forever more, by dozens of students – young diplomats, officers, and scholars, those for whom he was a mentor at work or during an internship, those who listened to his every word at Summer School and other training courses.

What did young scholars expect, and then receive, from their senior colleague? During conversations he would say such things like, “Be sure to pay attention to this question… It may be worth taking a closer look here… You should read this book here…” and then a new idea would form, and we would begin to see a pointed problem in its greater historical and political context, and the student would morph into a specialist in front of our eyes. A graduate of the Oriental Studies Department at Leningrad State University, Gennady Mikhailovich completed the colossal school of life and carried with him the best traditions of analysis and the deep understanding of regional and global processes. Along the way, he passed on these traditions and mental discipline to his students, for which we will be ever grateful.

Gennady Mikhailovich played a significant role at the PIR Center. He was with PIR even before its founding and stayed the course through our development. Over the course of almost 10 years, he served as a Senior Advisor and Senior Vice President of the PIR Center. With his direct participation, PIR expanded the scope of its work, transitioned from Yaderny Kontrol to Security Index, developed a new education and training program, and attracted new partners and friends. Each of us will treasure our memories of interacting with this extraordinary person, colleague, and mentor.

Photo gallery 

20_2.jpg

 

Segments from the program “What is to be done? New nuclear states,” Kultura TV channel with Gennady Evstafiev’s participation, October 29, 2006 (in Russian).

2013-02-22_0032.png

Gottemoeller, Rose image
City : США
Affiliation : Distinguished Visiting Scholar at the CNS; Payne Distinguished Lecturer at the CISAC; Research Fellow at the Hoover Institution
Biography :

Rose Gottemoeller was sworn in as the Assistant Secretary of State for the Bureau of Arms Control, Verification and Compliance, on April 6, 2009. She was the chief negotiator of the New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (New START) with the Russian Federation. Since 2000, she had been with the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. She most recently was a senior associate in the Carnegie Russia & Eurasia Program in Washington, D.C., where she worked on U.S.–Russian relations and nuclear security and stability. She also served as the director of the Carnegie Moscow Center from January 2006 – December 2008. Before joining the Endowment in October 2000, Ms. Gottemoeller was deputy undersecretary for defense nuclear nonproliferation in the U.S. Department of Energy. Previously, she served as the department's assistant secretary for nonproliferation and national security, with responsibility for all nonproliferation cooperation with Russia and the Newly Independent States. In 1994-1997, deputy director of the International Institute for Strategic Studies (London, United Kingdom). In 1993-1994, director for Russia, Ukraine, and Eurasia Affairs of the U.S. National Security Council. Research interests: nuclear nonproliferation and strategic security. PIR Center Advisory Board member since 1994.

Hoffman David image
Affiliation : Journalist
Biography :

David Hoffman is Contributing Editor at the Washington Post and has been a journalist for more than 30 years. He recently published his second book, The Dead Hand: The Untold Story of the Cold War Arms Race and its Dangerous Legacy. He is a winner of the Pulitzer Prize in 2010. Mr. Hoffman came to Washington in 1977 to cover Congress, and later served as the Washington correspondent for the San Jose Mercury-News. He covered Ronald Reagan's campaign for the presidency in 1980, and was national economics correspondent for Knight-Ridder Newspapers. In 1982, he joined The Washington Post to cover the Reagan presidency. As a White House correspondent, he covered the major U.S.-Soviet summits of the Reagan years, including Geneva and Reykjavik, as well as domestic policy and politics. After Reagan left office, he covered the George H. W. Bush presidency. Later, he was diplomatic correspondent at the time the Soviet Union collapsed, and then served as Jerusalem correspondent, covering the Oslo peace accords. From 1995 to 2001, he served as Moscow bureau chief. His first book, based on reporting in Moscow, was The Oligarchs: Wealth and Power in the New Russia. On returning to Washington in 2001, Mr. Hoffman was named Foreign Editor and then Assistant Managing Editor for foreign news, managing the Post's foreign service, until 2009. Member of the Sustainable Partnership with Russia (SuPR) Group since 2009.

Maslin, Evgeny P. image
City : Moscow
Affiliation : PIR Center Executive Board member, Consultant ANO ASPECT-CONVERSION
Biography :

Colonel General (Ret.), one of the founders of Russia's programs for international cooperation in the dismantlement of surplus armaments, an accomplishment recognized by the award of several government honors, including the Order of the Red Star, Order for Service to the Fatherland, and many medals. A leading expert on nuclear security, nuclear weapons reductions, and verification mechanisms. Laureate of the Russian State Prize. Worked in USSR/Russian Ministry of Defense organizations for more than 40 years, including from 1992-1997 as head of the Russian Ministry of Defense 12th Main Directorate, which is responsible for the security of nuclear munitions. Author of many publications in Russian and English, including articles on nuclear security, the Cooperative Threat Reduction program, and nuclear nonproliferation. He was awarded the Order of Military Merit and the Order of Courage.

Perfilyev Nikita image
City : Vienna, Austria
Affiliation : Associate External Relations Officer at the CTBTO
Biography :

In 2006 participated in PIR Center International Summer School, PIR Center intern from January till July, 2007. Graduated from Tomsk State University with major in International Relations. In 2004-2005 studied at Elon University (North Carolina, USA). Participant of the 2005 and 2006 Siberian regional student conference on non-proliferation of nuclear weapons organized with support from the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI). Research interests include China's non-proliferation policy, China's nuclear doctrine, and Russian energy policy. Deputy Editor-in-Chief of "Security Index" Journal at the PIR Center (2007 – 2008). Intern at the United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs in 2010. Graduate Research Assistant at the Center for Nonproliferation Studies (2008-2010). Research Associate at the Monterey Institute of International Studies James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies (2010-2011). Since April 2011 Associate External Relations Officer at the CTBTO in Vienna.


Potter, William image
City : Monterey, US
Affiliation : Director, James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies, Middlebury Institute of International Studies
Biography :

Doctor, Professor. Member of the international relations division of the Pacific Council on International Policy, and the International Institute for Strategic Studies. Adviser on nonproliferation to the UN Secretary General. Research interests: nonproliferation in the former Soviet Union.

Spassky, Nikolai N. image
City : Moscow
Affiliation : Deputy Director General, Rosatom State Corporation for Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation
Biography :

Doctor of Political Science, Ph.D. in History. Born in 1961. After graduation from the Moscow State Institute of International Relations in 1983 Nikolay Spassky worked in various diplomatic positions within the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, including Deputy and First Deputy Director, 1992-1994; Director of the North America Department from February 1994; Member of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Board from December 1995; Joint Russian Ambassador to Italy and San Marino, 1998-2004; Assistant Secretary to the Russian Security Council, 2004-2006. Nikolay Spassky holds the diplomatic rank of Plenipotentiary Ambassador, First Class. He is also the co-founder of the Centre russe d'études politiques. Member of the Sustainable Partnership with Russia (SuPR) Group since 2009. Member of PIR Center Editorial Board.

Timerbaev, Roland M. (1927 - 2019) image
Affiliation : Amb.
Biography :

Ambassador Timerbaev is one of the most influential specialists in the world in the sphere of nuclear nonproliferation and nuclear arms control. He is acclaimed by international expert community primarily as one of the authors of the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons, the cornerstone of entire nuclear nonproliferation regime.

After graduating from the Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO) in 1949, Roland Timerbaev dedicated over 40 years of his professional activity to the diplomatic service first in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Soviet Union and then of the Russian Federation, retiring in 1992 from the post of Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the International Organizations in Vienna.

Roland Timerbaev actively participated in drafting several key international agreements in the sphere of strategic stability and nuclear non-proliferation, including the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, the Agreement on the Prevention of Nuclear War, the IAEA safeguards system, the Treaty on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests, and the Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty. In 1974-1978 the Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary participated in establishing the Nuclear Suppliers Group. In 1990 Roland Timerbaev put forward an initiative to create national non-governmental organization that would be purposed to contribute to nuclear nonproliferation.

From 1994 to 1998 Roland Timerbaev was PIR Center President and from 1999 to 2010 - Chairman of the Executive Board. Untill his death in 2019 Roland Timerbaev remained our senior colleague as a member of the Advisory Board and kept sharing his rich experience and knowledge with young researchers.

Ambassador Timerbaev had broad academic and teaching experience both at the leading Russian and foreign  research institutions, including Moscow State Institute of International Relations, Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute, James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies.

Numerous publications of Roland Timerbaev on arms control, nonproliferation and disarmament are well known and highly renowned in the expert community. Ambassador's works include ‘The Peaceful Atom in the International Arena’ (1969), ‘Verification of Arms Control and Disarmament’ (1983), ‘The Complete Prohibition of Nuclear Tests’ (1986), ‘Russia and Nuclear Non-proliferation, 1945-1968’ (1999), ‘International Control of Atomic Energy’ (2003), and ‘The Current Status of the Nuclear Non-proliferation Regime and its Prospects: Towards the Upcoming 2005 NPT Review Conference’ (2004). Roland Timerbaev is also the co-author of textbook ‘Nuclear Nonproliferation’ (2002) and encyclopedia of the same name (2009) – these are first comprehensive study guides on nuclear nonproliferation in Russia.

In 2007, ROSSPEN Publishing House in cooperation with PIR Center published Ambassador Timerbaev’s memoirs “Stories of the past: Memoirs about negotiations on non-proliferation and disarmament and much else.”

List of publications:

The Peaceful Atom in the International Arena (1969)

Verification of Arms Control and Disarmament (1983)

The Complete Prohibition of Nuclear Tests (1986)

Russia and Nuclear Non-proliferation, 1945-1968 (1999)

Stories of the past: Memoirs about negotiations on non-proliferation and disarmament and much else. (in Russian) (2007)

PIR Center Library series:

The Nuclear Suppliers Group: Why and How It Was Created,1974-1978. (2000)

Nuclear nonproliferation (in Russian) (2002) 

V.A. Orlov, R.M. Timerbaev, A.V. Khlopkov Nuclear nonproliferation in U.S.-Russian relations: challenges and opportunities (2001)

Our Place in the Universe and Nuclear Weapons: Reflections from a Nuclear Arms Control Negotiator (2019)

PIR Center Study Papers:

No. 1 (1996): The Nuclear Nonproliferation Regime and Security Guarantees for Non-Nuclear States G.Bann R.Timerbaev (In Russian)

No. 12 (1999): Russia and the 2000 Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty Review Conference (In Russian)

No. 17 (2001): Proliferation and Nonproliferation in South Asia: Status and Outlook, R.Timerbaev, A. Shilin, V.Fedchenko (In Russian)

No. 22 (2003): International Control of Atomic Energy (In Russian)

№25 (2004): The Nuclear Nonproliferation Regime, Present and Prospects (in Russian)

Journal "Yaderny (Nuclear) Control"/"Security Index"

NPT: for Russia and the world it is better to save it for long time. №1 (1), January, 1995, p.4. (in Russian)

Nuclear disarmament: Are five nuclear states committed enough under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty? № 3 (3), March 1995. p.2 (co-authored) (in Russian)

How is the preparation for the extension of the NPT proceeding. Report from New York from the 4th session. № 3 (3), March 1995, p. 10 (in Russian)

The NPT is extended indefinitely. What is next? № 9 (9), September, 1995, p.19 (in Russian)

How feasible is the creation of the nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Middle East? №12 (12), December, 1995, p.7 (in Russian)

The procees of the NPT implementation (to the session of the Preparatory Committee for the Review Conference of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons). № 2 (26), February, 1997, p. 2. (in Russian)

Nuclear weapons and the security of Russia. № 4 (28), April, 1997, p. 22. (in Russian)

International Atomic Energy Agency and its activities in the field of control and regulation (to the 40th anniversary of the International Atomic Energy Agency). № 32–33, August-September, 1997, p. 3. (in Russian)

Nuclear Encyclopedia. № 30–31, June-July, 1997, p. 45 (co-authored) (in Russian)

The future of US nuclear weapons policy. № 32–33, August-September, 1997, p. 45. (in Russian)

Attitude of Academician Kapitsa and some other Soviet scientists to the atomic project, to the atomic bomb and its control. No. 1 (37), January – February, 1998, p. 65. (in Russian)

Russia and Security 1997–1998. Russia and the international arms control system: development or collapse. No. 1 (37), January-February 1998, p. 83. (in Russian)

How the Soviet Union Helped China Develop the A-bomb. No. 2-3 (8), Summer-Fall 1998, p.44

How the IAEA Safeguards System was Developed: Political Aspects (1959–1965). No. 4 (40), July – August 1998, p. 68. (in Russian)

The history of the development of control provisions of the NPT (political aspects). No. 5 (41), September – October 1998, p. 67. (in Russian)

Towards a New Nuclear Arms Limitation Treaty (Negotiations Resume on Banning the Production of Fissile Materials for Nuclear Weapons) No. 4 (9), Winter 1998/1999, p.43

Prospects of the entry into force of the CTBT. No. 3 (45), May – June 1999, p. 67 (in Russian)

Israel and the bomb. No. 4 (46), July – August 1999, p. 85. (in Russian)

A. A. Gromyko and the problem of nuclear nonproliferation. No. 6 (48), November – December 1999, p. 81. (in Russian)

The NPT: another exam has been passed. New ones - ahead. № 4 (52), July-August 2000, p. 4 (co-authored) (in Russian)

Russia and the 2000 NPT Review Conference No. 1 (13), Winter 2000, p.25

Dealing with Cold War Nuclear Legacy: Russian Perspective. No. 3 (15), Summer 2000, p.28

ABM/NMD and the START Process. No 4 (16), Fall 2000,p.37 

Indian nuclear bomb. Impact on global proliferation. No. 4 (52), July – August 2000, p. 83. (in Russian) 

The initiative of President Putin at the UN Millennium Summit. No. 6 (54), November – December 2000, p. 62 (co-authored) (in Russian)

The first step to prudence in the nuclear world. (The history of the conclusion of the 1963 Moscow Treaty on the Partial Prohibition of Nuclear Tests). No. 1 (55), January – February 2001, p. 73 (co-authored) (in Russian)

State and prospects of nuclear nonproliferation. No. 2 (56), March – April 2001, p. 24. (in Russian) 

The Time to Enhance Cooperation on Broad Range of Security Issues. (co-authored) No. 2 (22), Spring 2002, p.35

US-Russian November Summit: An Important but Insufficient Step. (co-authored)  No. 2 (22), Spring 2002, p.35

India: a rising star. No. 2 (62), March – April 2002, p. 73. (in Russian)

Democratic control over the military sphere in Russia and the CIS countries. No. 3 (63), May – June 2002, p. 84. (in Russian)

2005 Review Conference of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: How the preparation for the conference is going. No. 4 (64), July – August 2002, p. 51. (in Russian)

Leo Szilard and international control of atomic energy. No. 5 (65), September – October 2002, p. 68. (in Russian)

Deadly Arsenals. No. 2 (68), summer 2003, p. 161. (in Russian)

Middle East and the nuclear issue. No. 3 (69), fall 2003, p. 15 (in Russian)

The preparations for the 2005 NPT Review Conference No. 3 (69), Autumn 2003, p. 101. (in Russian)

The role of the UN in today's world. No. 3-4 (31-32), Summer/Fall 2004, p.46 

Tritium - freeze. No. 4 (70), winter 2003, p. 151. (in Russian)

Arms control. Joseph Goldblatt. A new guide to negotiations and agreements. No. 1 (71), spring 2004, p. 173. (in Russian)

The problems of preparation for the 2005 NPT Review Conference. No. 3 (73), Autumn 2004, p. 101. (in Russian)

The Right to Withdrawal from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT): The Views of Two NPT Negotiators. (co-authored) No. 1-2 (33-34), Winter/Spring 2005, p.20

The Evolution of Arms Control: Current TrendsBy Roland Timerbaev. No. 3-4 (35-36), summer/Fall2005, p.59

Lessons learned from the 4th 1990 NPT Review Conference No. 1 (75), Spring 2005, p. 171 (in Russian)

South Africa: how its nuclear weapons were created, how and why the state abandoned them. No. 2 (76), summer 2005, p. 121. (in Russian)

The nuclear potential and nuclear policy of China. No. 4 (78), winter 2005, p. 83. (in Russian)

The agreements between the USSR and the USA of 1971 on measures to reduce the risk of a nuclear war. No. 4 (78), winter 2005, p. 131. (in Russian)

How the USSR helped China create an atomic bomb. No. 3 (41), May – June 1998, p. 76; No. 2 (80), summer 2006, p. 167 ( in Russian)

ON THE "THRESHOLD" TEST BAN TREATIES OF 1974-76. SECURITY INDEX №2 (82), 2007

The Role of the Nuclear Factor in the Modern World.  №3 (85), 2008. 

On Libya, Antimissile Defense, as Well as Other Autobiographical Events.  №1 (83), 2008.

The problem of security guarantees for non-nuclear states ahead of the NPT Review Conference. No. 4 (87), winter 2008, p. 69. ( in Russian)

Nuclear-Weapon-Free-World: Ways of Moving Ahead.  No. 2 (87), Volume 15.

First Steps towards Arms Limitation. No. 3 (92), Summer 2010.

Fissile Material Cutoff: New Chances for the New Life. No. 1 (90), Winter 2010. 

loading