The editors decided to shift the focus a little from the problems of nuclear nonproliferation and arms control and talk about people. Nikita Degtyarev, PIR Center Information & Publications Program Coordinator, interviewed Sarah Bidgood, Director of the Eurasia Nonproliferation Program at the James ...

On June 2nd President Putin signed an executive order, which approved the Basic Principles of State Policy of the Russian Federation on Nuclear Deterrence. Even without considering the contents of the “Basic Principles”, it would not be an exaggeration to say that it is a development of major import...


Terrorism has been a threat to Russia since the 19th century. Taking on different forms – from the revolutionary Narodnaya Volya to national separatism with an infusion of Wahhabism in Chechnya to jihadist semi-criminal groups of North Caucasus – it has arguably influenced the pace and ...

How to prevent placement of weapons in Outer Space: challenges and solutions (Russian priorities) image

Recently, the threats of weaponization of outer space have been increasingly backed by both the doctrinal documents of several countries, first of all the United States, and the material content, which in turn is being formed through organizational measures, as well as improving military technical c...

The Middle East remains one of the zones of high tension and instability in the contemporary world. Today, new challenges – e.g., international terrorism, the crises in Iran, Iraq, Yemen, Libya, and Syria – are adding to the old and deeply rooted problems created by the Arab-Israeli conflict. The un...

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Gennady Evstafiev image
Biography :

Lieutenant-General (ret.) Evstafiev (25.08.1938 – 19.02.2013), a person of great fortitude, wisdom, and professionalism, dedicated all his health, strength, and intellect to serving his country and strengthening international security. We are very honored to have been able to work with such an amazing and knowledgeable person.

One of the patriarchs of nuclear nonproliferation has left us. No matter what office he held, Gennady Mikhailovich made considerable contributions to strengthen the nonproliferation and disarmament regime.  From 1981 to 1985, he served as Special Assistant to the UN Secretary-General, and from 1999-2000 as a member of the Secretary-General’s Advisory Board on Disarmament Matters. He was an active participant in the historical 1995 NPT Review and Extension Conference, as well as the Moscow Nuclear Safety and Security Summit in 1996.

Gennady Mikhailovich played a key role in preparing the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service’s public reports “A New Challenge After the Cold War: Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction” (1993) and “The Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons: Problems of Extension” (1995), which are still used today as key reference materials in the field. To this day, the publication of these reports remains an example of special services’ analytic work and ability to engage the public in dialogue. Thanks to the work of these authors, the world saw that Russia bases its arguments on facts and, no matter the circumstances, independently participates in the formation of a global nonproliferation and disarmament agenda.

Lieutenant-General Evstafiev was one of the people who, during the country’s hardest times, not only stayed dedicated to the task at hand, but was also able find solutions to global problems in a spirit of collaboration and while protecting national interests. From 1986 to 1991, Gennady Mikhailovich was one of the head Soviet delegates during the negotiation of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE Treaty) in Vienna before he went on to work for the Foreign Intelligence Service. From 2000-2003, he served at the Russian Permanent Mission to NATO, where he worked on combating terrorism and WMD proliferation. After retiring in 2003, he became a Senior Advisor and later Senior Vice President at the PIR Center, where he continued to dedicate himself to arms control issues and developing new security mechanisms in Europe.

For Gennady Mikhailovich, strengthening the nonproliferation and disarmament regime wasn’t just political rhetoric, it was a subject of in-depth analysis with the goal of finding optimal, balanced solutions. Back when people had essentially stopped thinking about saving the world from weapons of mass destruction, before big speeches and initiatives revived the topic, Gennady Mikhailovich published the article “Disarmament Returns” (Security Index 2007), in which he not only declared the acute relevance of this problem, he defined the lines along which this discussion takes place today. “The main mistake that people make is they fear today’s troubles more than tomorrow’s,” he said, and underlined that, “this means only one thing – we must learn to preempt the consequences of new military technology and classes of weapons with timely political and legal measures.”

This is precisely what Gennady Mikhailovich worked on at the PIR Center. He co-authored a 2005 monograph Unmanned aerial vehicles: history, application, threat of proliferation, and prospects of development – the first work to define the importance of this issue for Russia. Information security, nuclear energy and nonproliferation, Central Asia – Evstafiev was a part of these and many other PIR projects from the outset. Dozens of publications, hundreds of interviews and comments to the press – he was constantly working.

He will most certainly be remembered, today and forever more, by dozens of students – young diplomats, officers, and scholars, those for whom he was a mentor at work or during an internship, those who listened to his every word at Summer School and other training courses.

What did young scholars expect, and then receive, from their senior colleague? During conversations he would say such things like, “Be sure to pay attention to this question… It may be worth taking a closer look here… You should read this book here…” and then a new idea would form, and we would begin to see a pointed problem in its greater historical and political context, and the student would morph into a specialist in front of our eyes. A graduate of the Oriental Studies Department at Leningrad State University, Gennady Mikhailovich completed the colossal school of life and carried with him the best traditions of analysis and the deep understanding of regional and global processes. Along the way, he passed on these traditions and mental discipline to his students, for which we will be ever grateful.

Gennady Mikhailovich played a significant role at the PIR Center. He was with PIR even before its founding and stayed the course through our development. Over the course of almost 10 years, he served as a Senior Advisor and Senior Vice President of the PIR Center. With his direct participation, PIR expanded the scope of its work, transitioned from Yaderny Kontrol to Security Index, developed a new education and training program, and attracted new partners and friends. Each of us will treasure our memories of interacting with this extraordinary person, colleague, and mentor.

Photo gallery 



Segments from the program “What is to be done? New nuclear states,” Kultura TV channel with Gennady Evstafiev’s participation, October 29, 2006 (in Russian).


Timerbaev, Roland M. (1927 - 2019) image
Affiliation : Amb.
Biography :

Ambassador Timerbaev is one of the most influential specialists in the world in the sphere of nuclear nonproliferation and nuclear arms control. He is acclaimed by international expert community primarily as one of the authors of the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons, the cornerstone of entire nuclear nonproliferation regime.

After graduating from the Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO) in 1949, Roland Timerbaev dedicated over 40 years of his professional activity to the diplomatic service first in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Soviet Union and then of the Russian Federation, retiring in 1992 from the post of Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the International Organizations in Vienna.

Roland Timerbaev actively participated in drafting several key international agreements in the sphere of strategic stability and nuclear non-proliferation, including the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, the Agreement on the Prevention of Nuclear War, the IAEA safeguards system, the Treaty on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests, and the Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty. In 1974-1978 the Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary participated in establishing the Nuclear Suppliers Group. In 1990 Roland Timerbaev put forward an initiative to create national non-governmental organization that would be purposed to contribute to nuclear nonproliferation.

From 1994 to 1998 Roland Timerbaev was PIR Center President and from 1999 to 2010 - Chairman of the Executive Board. Untill his death in 2019 Roland Timerbaev remained our senior colleague as a member of the Advisory Board and kept sharing his rich experience and knowledge with young researchers.

Ambassador Timerbaev had broad academic and teaching experience both at the leading Russian and foreign  research institutions, including Moscow State Institute of International Relations, Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute, James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies.

Numerous publications of Roland Timerbaev on arms control, nonproliferation and disarmament are well known and highly renowned in the expert community. Ambassador's works include ‘The Peaceful Atom in the International Arena’ (1969), ‘Verification of Arms Control and Disarmament’ (1983), ‘The Complete Prohibition of Nuclear Tests’ (1986), ‘Russia and Nuclear Non-proliferation, 1945-1968’ (1999), ‘International Control of Atomic Energy’ (2003), and ‘The Current Status of the Nuclear Non-proliferation Regime and its Prospects: Towards the Upcoming 2005 NPT Review Conference’ (2004). Roland Timerbaev is also the co-author of textbook ‘Nuclear Nonproliferation’ (2002) and encyclopedia of the same name (2009) – these are first comprehensive study guides on nuclear nonproliferation in Russia.

In 2007, ROSSPEN Publishing House in cooperation with PIR Center published Ambassador Timerbaev’s memoirs “Stories of the past: Memoirs about negotiations on non-proliferation and disarmament and much else.”

List of publications:

The Peaceful Atom in the International Arena (1969)

Verification of Arms Control and Disarmament (1983)

The Complete Prohibition of Nuclear Tests (1986)

Russia and Nuclear Non-proliferation, 1945-1968 (1999)

Stories of the past: Memoirs about negotiations on non-proliferation and disarmament and much else. (in Russian) (2007)

PIR Center Library series:

The Nuclear Suppliers Group: Why and How It Was Created,1974-1978. (2000)

Nuclear nonproliferation (in Russian) (2002) 

V.A. Orlov, R.M. Timerbaev, A.V. Khlopkov Nuclear nonproliferation in U.S.-Russian relations: challenges and opportunities (2001)

Our Place in the Universe and Nuclear Weapons: Reflections from a Nuclear Arms Control Negotiator (2019)

PIR Center Study Papers:

No. 1 (1996): The Nuclear Nonproliferation Regime and Security Guarantees for Non-Nuclear States G.Bann R.Timerbaev (In Russian)

No. 12 (1999): Russia and the 2000 Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty Review Conference (In Russian)

No. 17 (2001): Proliferation and Nonproliferation in South Asia: Status and Outlook, R.Timerbaev, A. Shilin, V.Fedchenko (In Russian)

No. 22 (2003): International Control of Atomic Energy (In Russian)

№25 (2004): The Nuclear Nonproliferation Regime, Present and Prospects (in Russian)

Journal "Yaderny (Nuclear) Control"/"Security Index"

NPT: for Russia and the world it is better to save it for long time. №1 (1), January, 1995, p.4. (in Russian)

Nuclear disarmament: Are five nuclear states committed enough under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty? № 3 (3), March 1995. p.2 (co-authored) (in Russian)

How is the preparation for the extension of the NPT proceeding. Report from New York from the 4th session. № 3 (3), March 1995, p. 10 (in Russian)

The NPT is extended indefinitely. What is next? № 9 (9), September, 1995, p.19 (in Russian)

How feasible is the creation of the nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Middle East? №12 (12), December, 1995, p.7 (in Russian)

The procees of the NPT implementation (to the session of the Preparatory Committee for the Review Conference of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons). № 2 (26), February, 1997, p. 2. (in Russian)

Nuclear weapons and the security of Russia. № 4 (28), April, 1997, p. 22. (in Russian)

International Atomic Energy Agency and its activities in the field of control and regulation (to the 40th anniversary of the International Atomic Energy Agency). № 32–33, August-September, 1997, p. 3. (in Russian)

Nuclear Encyclopedia. № 30–31, June-July, 1997, p. 45 (co-authored) (in Russian)

The future of US nuclear weapons policy. № 32–33, August-September, 1997, p. 45. (in Russian)

Attitude of Academician Kapitsa and some other Soviet scientists to the atomic project, to the atomic bomb and its control. No. 1 (37), January – February, 1998, p. 65. (in Russian)

Russia and Security 1997–1998. Russia and the international arms control system: development or collapse. No. 1 (37), January-February 1998, p. 83. (in Russian)

How the Soviet Union Helped China Develop the A-bomb. No. 2-3 (8), Summer-Fall 1998, p.44

How the IAEA Safeguards System was Developed: Political Aspects (1959–1965). No. 4 (40), July – August 1998, p. 68. (in Russian)

The history of the development of control provisions of the NPT (political aspects). No. 5 (41), September – October 1998, p. 67. (in Russian)

Towards a New Nuclear Arms Limitation Treaty (Negotiations Resume on Banning the Production of Fissile Materials for Nuclear Weapons) No. 4 (9), Winter 1998/1999, p.43

Prospects of the entry into force of the CTBT. No. 3 (45), May – June 1999, p. 67 (in Russian)

Israel and the bomb. No. 4 (46), July – August 1999, p. 85. (in Russian)

A. A. Gromyko and the problem of nuclear nonproliferation. No. 6 (48), November – December 1999, p. 81. (in Russian)

The NPT: another exam has been passed. New ones - ahead. № 4 (52), July-August 2000, p. 4 (co-authored) (in Russian)

Russia and the 2000 NPT Review Conference No. 1 (13), Winter 2000, p.25

Dealing with Cold War Nuclear Legacy: Russian Perspective. No. 3 (15), Summer 2000, p.28

ABM/NMD and the START Process. No 4 (16), Fall 2000,p.37 

Indian nuclear bomb. Impact on global proliferation. No. 4 (52), July – August 2000, p. 83. (in Russian) 

The initiative of President Putin at the UN Millennium Summit. No. 6 (54), November – December 2000, p. 62 (co-authored) (in Russian)

The first step to prudence in the nuclear world. (The history of the conclusion of the 1963 Moscow Treaty on the Partial Prohibition of Nuclear Tests). No. 1 (55), January – February 2001, p. 73 (co-authored) (in Russian)

State and prospects of nuclear nonproliferation. No. 2 (56), March – April 2001, p. 24. (in Russian) 

The Time to Enhance Cooperation on Broad Range of Security Issues. (co-authored) No. 2 (22), Spring 2002, p.35

US-Russian November Summit: An Important but Insufficient Step. (co-authored)  No. 2 (22), Spring 2002, p.35

India: a rising star. No. 2 (62), March – April 2002, p. 73. (in Russian)

Democratic control over the military sphere in Russia and the CIS countries. No. 3 (63), May – June 2002, p. 84. (in Russian)

2005 Review Conference of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons: How the preparation for the conference is going. No. 4 (64), July – August 2002, p. 51. (in Russian)

Leo Szilard and international control of atomic energy. No. 5 (65), September – October 2002, p. 68. (in Russian)

Deadly Arsenals. No. 2 (68), summer 2003, p. 161. (in Russian)

Middle East and the nuclear issue. No. 3 (69), fall 2003, p. 15 (in Russian)

The preparations for the 2005 NPT Review Conference No. 3 (69), Autumn 2003, p. 101. (in Russian)

The role of the UN in today's world. No. 3-4 (31-32), Summer/Fall 2004, p.46 

Tritium - freeze. No. 4 (70), winter 2003, p. 151. (in Russian)

Arms control. Joseph Goldblatt. A new guide to negotiations and agreements. No. 1 (71), spring 2004, p. 173. (in Russian)

The problems of preparation for the 2005 NPT Review Conference. No. 3 (73), Autumn 2004, p. 101. (in Russian)

The Right to Withdrawal from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT): The Views of Two NPT Negotiators. (co-authored) No. 1-2 (33-34), Winter/Spring 2005, p.20

The Evolution of Arms Control: Current TrendsBy Roland Timerbaev. No. 3-4 (35-36), summer/Fall2005, p.59

Lessons learned from the 4th 1990 NPT Review Conference No. 1 (75), Spring 2005, p. 171 (in Russian)

South Africa: how its nuclear weapons were created, how and why the state abandoned them. No. 2 (76), summer 2005, p. 121. (in Russian)

The nuclear potential and nuclear policy of China. No. 4 (78), winter 2005, p. 83. (in Russian)

The agreements between the USSR and the USA of 1971 on measures to reduce the risk of a nuclear war. No. 4 (78), winter 2005, p. 131. (in Russian)

How the USSR helped China create an atomic bomb. No. 3 (41), May – June 1998, p. 76; No. 2 (80), summer 2006, p. 167 ( in Russian)


The Role of the Nuclear Factor in the Modern World.  №3 (85), 2008. 

On Libya, Antimissile Defense, as Well as Other Autobiographical Events.  №1 (83), 2008.

The problem of security guarantees for non-nuclear states ahead of the NPT Review Conference. No. 4 (87), winter 2008, p. 69. ( in Russian)

Nuclear-Weapon-Free-World: Ways of Moving Ahead.  No. 2 (87), Volume 15.

First Steps towards Arms Limitation. No. 3 (92), Summer 2010.

Fissile Material Cutoff: New Chances for the New Life. No. 1 (90), Winter 2010. 

Trubnikov, Vyacheslav I. image
Affiliation : Institute of World Economy and International Relations, Russian Academy of Sciences
Position : Board member, Honorary Member of the Trialogue Club International
Biography :

General of the Army, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Hero of the Russian Federation. In 1967 graduated from the Moscow State Institute of International Relations with the Diploma of referent for Eastern countries. Since 1973 Member of the Russian Union of Journalists. Director of the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service in 1996-2000. First Deputy of the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Special Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in CIS countries in 2000-2004. Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Russian Federation to India in 2004-2009. PIR Center Executive Board member since 2014 and Member of the Trialogue Club International since 2012.

Zulkharneev, Albert F. image
City : Moscow
Affiliation : PIR Center
Position : Consultant
Expertise :
Nonproliferation of nuclear weapons
Foreign policy of the Russian Federation
International security policy of the Russian Federation
Сivil and expert diplomacy
Biography :

Deputy Head of the Projects’ Department at Executive Office of the All-Russia People's Front (ONF) since November 2019. In 2007 – 2019 member of staff in PIR Center. PIR Center Education and Training Program Director, PIR Center Executive Director in 2013-2015. PIR Center Director in 2015-2019. Consultant to PIR Center since October 2019. In 2015 – 2020 Research Fellow at the Center for Global Trends and International Organizations, Diplomatic Academy of the Russian Foreign Ministry. Graduated from PhD studies at the Faculty of World Politics and World Economy of the National Research University - Higher School of Economics. In 2008 graduated with Master degree from the International Relations Department of the Ural State University and got Master degree in History from Central European University (2007, Budapest, Hungary). In 2003-2005 participated in international courses of Farsi language and literature. In August - December 2011 scholar of the Program for teaching and research at the OSCE Academy in Bishkek.  Participant of sessions of the Preparatory Committee for the NPT Review Conference 2012-2013 and 2017 - 2020 and the 2015 NPT Review Conference. The organizer of the PIR Center International School on Global Security, the programs for improving professional skills of Central Asian specialists, the course on global security of the international session of the youth forum "Seliger",  the joint educational course of the PIR Center and MGIMO "nonproliferation of WMD" and a Dual Degree Master’s Program in Nonproliferation Studies (MGIMO - Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey - PIR Center). 07/20