Articles

Amb. Vyacheslav Trubnikov

Summary of remarks by Amb. Vyacheslav Trubnikov

PIR Center International School of Global Security, 2019

 

We should not become preoccupied with military security to the exclusion of all else. The future security architecture should be viewed from all the numerous and often conflicting vantage point...

In 2019, the third session of the 2020 NPT Review Conference Preparatory Committee will take place in New York. Malaysian diplomat, Muhammad Shahrul Ikram Yaakob, was chosen to serve as its Chair. In its interview to PIR Center Consultant Andrey Baklitsky for Yaderny Kontrol (Nuclear Control) bullet...

On October 20, 2018, President Donald Trump announced that the United States is going to withdraw from the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF Treaty). Many experts assumed that that Trump’s decision was caused not by the accusations that Russia violated the treaty but by concerns about Ch...

Russian and American experts have widely assumed that on July 16, 2018, one of the issues that may come up during the Russia-US summit in Helsinki is arms control. Unlike many other issues, it would also be a less controversial topic for the US administration battled by the accusations of “collusion...

On July 16, 2018, the presidents of Russia and the United States will meet in Helsinki for the first US-Russian summit since Donald Trump assumed the presidency. The cyber domain is likely to be included in the agenda of the upcoming meeting.


Direct Russia-US cyber dialogue is currently suspended si...

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Security Index Authors

Daniel Russell image
Affiliation : Deputy Assistant Secretary of State responsible for relations with Russia, Ukraine, Moldova, Belarus and for international security and arms control issues in the State Department's Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs
Daniel Zappelli image
Affiliation : Attorney General of the Republic and Canton of Geneva
Biography :

A Swiss national, Zappelli was born in 1964. In 1982–1986, he studied law in the Fribourg University in Switzerland and then a year later also graduated the Faculty of European Law in the Exeter University in the U.K. From then on he worked as lawyer at Hauchmann & Monfrini law office in Geneva until 1996. Later on he moved to civil service and till 1999 carried on as Assistant to the Attorney General in Geneva. In 2000, he became a judge at the tribunal of first instance and the President of the Commercial Chamber. And two years later he was appointed at his current post of Attorney General.

Danilov, Dmitry A. image
Affiliation : Head, Department for European Security, Institute of Europe of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Biography :

Ph.D. in Economics, Professor. Graduated from Moscow State University in 1982. Prior to 1988 - Senior Researcher at the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation. He is a member of PIR Center Advisory Board. Author of over 150 publications. Fluent in French and English. PIR Center Advisory Board member since 2011.


Demidov Oleg V. image
City : Moscow
Affiliation : PIR Center
Position : Consultant
Expertise :
International legal regulation in cybersecurity area
Social media
Cyber security
National and international cyber strategies
Biography :

Oleg Demidov graduated from the School of Public Administration at Moscow State University of Lomonosov in 2010. Currently, Oleg has been working on his Ph.D thesis at Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO University). In 2011-2012, he held the position of Project Coordinator at Center for Political and International Studies (CPIS) under the International Federation for Peace and Conciliation. Since 2012, he has served as an expert to the Commission on Information Security and Cybercrime at the Russian Association for Electronic Communications (RAEC). In 2013-2014, he held the position of Director of the Program International Information Security and Global Internet Governance at PIR Center. 

Since 2011 Oleg has been participating in the international project “A Twenty-First Century Concert of Powers” conducted by Frankfurt Peace Research Institute (PRIF) (through 2014). He is the author of a number of research articles on information security, cybersecurity, and global internet governance in PIR Center’s Security Index journal and other editions. Oleg serves as the Secretary of the Working Group on International Information Security and Global Internet Governance under PIR Center Advisory Board. In March 2014 Oleg became a member of the Research Advisory Network (RAN) under the Global Commission on Internet Governance (CGIG). PIR Center Advisory Board member since 2015. 06/17


Denisov Andrey image
Affiliation : First Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation
Biography :

Born in 1952, Amb. Denisov graduated the Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO) in 1974. In 1973–1981 he worked in the Soviet economic and trade mission in China. In 1981–1991 he joined the International Department of the CPSU’s Central Committee, as an expert on China. In 1992–1997 he was a Counselor and then Senior Counselor at the Russian embassy in Beijing. In 1997 he was appointed Director of the Department of Economic Cooperation of the Russian MFA. He worked until 2000 when he was appointed to head the RF embassy in Egypt. In 2001–2004 Amb. Denisov was Deputy Foreign Minister of the Russian Federation. In 2004–2006 he served as Permanent Representative to the UN. Since 2006 Amb. Denisov is the First Deputy Foreign Minister.

Deriglazova Larisa image
City : Tomsk, Russia
Affiliation : Profesor at the World Politics Faculty, Tomsk State University
E-mail : dlarisa@inbox.ru
Biography :

Professor of the political sciences. Graduated from the history faculty at the Tomsk State University (TSU) in 1985. In years 1991-93 - PhD candidate. From 2006 to 2009 - Lecturer at the TSU. 2003-2010 -   deputy head of the world politics faculty at the TSU. 1998 - 2002 - deputy head of the Russian Program on Syberia and Far East. Participant of the Civil Education project held by the Yale University. 1996-2002 - lecturer at the TSU, world politics faculty. 1994-1996 - methodological employee of the history faculty at the TSU.

Devyatnikov Andrey image
City : Tyumen, Russia
Affiliation : Postgraduate Student and Lecturer at the Chair of Modern History and International Relations by the Institute of History and Political Sciences, Tyumen State University
Biography :

participant of PIR Center Summer School 2008

Dhanapala, Jayantha image
Affiliation : President, Pugwash Movement of Scientists; Chairman, UN University Council
Biography :

Before 2007 he was a former United Nations Under-Secretary-General for Disarmament Affairs and a former Ambassador of Sri Lanka to the USA and to the UN Office in Geneva. He is a member of the Governing Board of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI). As a Sri Lankan diplomat Dhanapala served in London, Beijing, Washington D.C., New Delhi, and Geneva and he has represented Sri Lanka at a number of international conferences chairing several of them including the historic NPT Review and Extension Conference of 1995. Dhanapala is also a former Director of the UN Institute for Disarmament Research. Jayantha Dhanapala is a member of the Board of Sponsors of The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists and a governing board member of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. Dr. Dhanapala was Sri Lanka's official candidate for the post of Secretary-General of the United Nations, before withdrawing from the race on 29 September 2006. From 2007 - President of the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs. PIR Center Advisory Board member since 2004.

Diakov Anatoly image
Biography :

Doctor of Physics and Mathematics, Member of PIR Center Advisory Board. Anatoly Diakov specializes in quantum radiophysics, physics of lasers, nonequilibrium physics. He has over 40 scientific publications.

Diaz-Balart, Fidel image
Biography :

Chairman of the Cuban Atomic Energy Commission from 1980 to 1992. Educated in Russia and holds a Ph.D. in physics and mathematical sciences from the Kurchatov Atomic Energy Institute. In 1984-1993 was head of the department of physical sciences at the Cuban Academy of Sciences.

Duarte Sergio image
City : Brasilia
Affiliation : Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
Position : President
Biography :

A career diplomat, who from July 2007 to February 2012 served as United Nations High Representative for Disarmament Affairs, with the United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Ambassador Duarte served the Brazilian Foreign Service for forty eight years. He was the Ambassador of Brazil in a number of countries, including Austria, Croatia, Slovakia and Slovenia, China, Canada, Nicaragua, Switzerland, the United States, Argentina and Italy. In addition, he has been posted as the Brazilian representative to several International organizations, focusing on disarmament issues. From 1999 to 2000, he was the Chairman of the Board of Governors of the IAEA. Ambassador Duarte was a representative in international organizations on disarmament issues. Member of PIR Center International Expert Group since 2012.

Dvorkin, Vladimir Z. image
City : Moscow
Affiliation : Chief Research Associate, Institute of World Economy and International Relations (IMEMO)
Biography :

Professor. Major General (Ret.), Doctor of Technical Sciences, a top military expert, General Dvorkin was one of the main authors of the Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces and Strategic Missile Forces policy documents. He participated as an expert in the preparation of the SALT II, INF, START I, and START II treaties for many years, and made a noticeable contribution to the formation of the Soviet and Russian position at the negotiations on the limitation and reduction of strategic weapons. He participated in the testing of the first Soviet nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines and the first submerged launches of ballistic missiles. He is an active member of the Russian Academy of Missile and Artillery Sciences, the Academy of Military Sciences, the Russian Engineering Academy, the International Engineering Academy, and the Academy of Cosmonautics. He is the author of more than 350 academic papers and numerous articles. His academic interests include missile dismantlement issues, combating terrorism, and nuclear safety and security. PIR Center Advisory Board member since 2003.

Edward M. Ifft image
Affiliation : Adjunct Professor in the Security Studies Program in the Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University
Biography :

Edward Ifft has been involved in negotiating and implementing many of the key arms control agreements of the past 35 years. He has a Ph.D. in physics from Ohio State University. hile a graduate student, he was selected to spend a year at Moscow State University and the Institute for Physical Problems of the U.S.S.R Academy of Sciences under the U.S.U.S.S.R cultural exchange program. He is a graduate of the Senior Managers in Government program at Harvard University. Dr. Ifft began his government career at the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. He then moved to the State Department, where he continued to work on strategic arms control, as well as on constraints on nuclear testing, serving as the Deputy U.S. Negotiator at the 1974 negotiations on the Threshold Test Ban Treaty in Moscow. In 1978, he accepted a detail to NASA for three years, serving as Head of the Office of International Program Policy and Executive Secretary of the U.S.U.S.S.R Space Cooperation Agreement. Upon returning to the State Department, he served as Senior Policy Advisor and then Senior State Department Representative to the START negotiations in Geneva. After that he became Deputy Director of the OnSite Inspection Agency. In 1998, he became Senior Advisor and State Department liaison to DTRA until his retirement from the Senior Executive Service in 2002. He also served as the last U.S. Commissioner for the ABM Treaty until the U.S. withdrew from the Treaty in 2002. Dr. Ifft has lectured at many universities and government laboratories and in more than 10 countries. Dr. Ifft continues to work parttime in the State Department as a Foreign Affairs Officer.

Eggert, Konstantin von image
City : Moscow
Affiliation : Journalist
Biography :

Famous Russian journalist. Before September of 2013 - Deputy Editor-in-Chief of the Kommersant FM radio station, before March of 2013 - political observer at the Kommersant FM radio station. He took interviews from numerous politicians including Sergey Lavrov and Vaclav Havel. Member of the Royal Institute of International Relations (London, United Kingdom), member of editorial board of the Carnegie Moscow Center's journal Pro et Contra. Earlier - Head of the BBC Russian service. PIR Center Advisory Board member since 2002. Member of PIR Center International Expert Group since 2006.

Einhorn, Robert image
Affiliation : Senior Associate, Brookings Institution
Biography :

Before joining Brookings in May 2013, served as the U.S. Department of State special advisor for nonproliferation and arms control, a position created by Secretary of State Hillary Clinton in 2009. Between 2001 and 2009, was a senior advisor at the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), where directed the Proliferation Prevention Program. Prior to joining CSIS, was assistant secretary of state for nonproliferation from 1999 to 2001, deputy assistant secretary of state for political-military affairs from 1992 to 1999, and a member of the State Department policy planning staff from 1986 to 1992. Between 1972 and 1986, held various positions at the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA), including as ACDA’s representative to the strategic arms reduction talks with the Soviet Union. PIR Center Advisory Board member since 2007. 

Evstafiev, Dmitry G. image
City : Moscow
Affiliation : Department of Integrated Communications, The Higher School of Economics
Position : Professor
Biography :

Doctor of Political Science. Prof., National Research University - Higher School of Economics, earlier - vice president of KROS Public Relations Development Company. Leading expert on the military and political facets of Russian national security, U.S. foreign and military policy, and regional aspects of nuclear nonproliferation. In 2001-2008 worked as Director of the Techsnabexport (TENEX) Public Relations Department and Deputy Director General of the National Laboratory for Foreign Policy. An experienced editor, he is a co-author of several books and monographs, and an author of several articles as well as publications in Russian and foreign academic and political press. In 1995-2003 he was a PIR Center senior research associate. PIR Center Security Index Editorial Board Member. 12/17

Fedorov Alexander Valentinovich image
City : Moscow
Affiliation : PIR Center
Position : Member of the Advisory Board
Expertise :
Information security
Biography :

Alexander has a Ph.D. in Physical and Mathematical Sciences. Following his studies at Moscow State University, he worked in various government agencies, where he worked on disarmament and WMD nonproliferation issues. More recently he has been actively studying and working on international and information security. He is the editor and co-author of the monographs Information Challenges in National and International Security and Superterrorism: New Challenge for a New CenturyPIR Center Advisory Board member since 2001. Member of the PIR Center EKS Working Group on International Information Security and Global Internet Governance since 2012. 

Fedorov, Yuri image
City : Rome, Italy
Affiliation : PIR Center
Position : PIR Center Executive Board Member and Security Index Editorial Board Member
Biography :

Candidate of History, Professor. Member of the Czech Association of International Affairs, Professor of the Metropolitan University Prague. Erlier was an Associated Fellow in Royal Institute of International Affairs (also known as Chatham House, United Kingdom). Leading expert on international security issues, including energy security and arms control. His name and numerous publications on strategic armaments, tactical nuclear weapons, anti-missile defense, and missile warning systems are well known both in Russia and abroad. Headed the team of authors and wrote several chapters in the UNDP's annual Human Development Reports for the Russian Federation. Professor at MGIMO. Also worked at King's College in London, doing research and teaching within the Program on Post-Communist Security Studies. PIR Center Board Member and Security Index Editorial Board Member.

Fedotov Yury image
Affiliation : Under-Secretary General of the United Nations, the Executive Director of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
Biography :

Ambassador. He is also Director General of the UN Office in Vienna. His roles include the promotion the reforms launched by the Secretary General to adapt the UN to the global challenges of the 21st century. He graduated from the Moscow State Institute of International Relations in 1971. He has held many foreign service positions to the UN and at Russian embassies in Algeria and India. In 2002 he was appointed the Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs (Russia) and held this post until 2005. From 2005 until 2010 he held the post of Ambassador of Russia to the United Kingdom.

Ferrer Jorge image
Affiliation : Cuban journalist and writer
Biography :

He graduated MGIMO and the Havana University. He is the author of many novels and short stories, including Minimal Bildung (Miami, 2001). His work about cultural relations of Cuba and the Soviet Union – “Around the Sun: The Adventures of a Wayward Satellite” - was included in the collection Caviar with Rum: Cuba-U.S.S.R and the post-Soviet Experience (Palgrave, is ready for printing). He translated into Spanish the works by Ivan Bunin, Mikhail Kuraev, Ilya Erenburg and many others. For his translations of the Russian literature he was rewarded in 2009 by the Boris Yeltsin Foundation.

Frolov, Andrei L. image
Affiliation : Editor-in-Chief of the "Export of Weapons" journal
Biography :

He served the internship from September, 2002 till January 2003, then he was the PIR Center Coordinator for the Project on Transformation of the Russian Exports Control System, Commissioning Editor of the Yaderny Kontrol journal, Research Associate. During the internship he wrote an article entitled “Russia and France in the Mirror of the Global Partnership” and published it in the Yaderny Kontrol journal, No.2, 2003. A graduate of the French-Russian Masters Program of the Moscow State Institute for International Relations (MGIMO) as of 2003. He graduated with honors from the International Relations Department of the St. Petersburg State University. A participant of the Second International Nonproliferation Conference held in Moscow. His scientific interests encompass nuclear submarines, advanced armaments for Russian and foreign armed forces, issues of military technology cooperation for the Russian Federation.

Gagarinsky Andrey image
Affiliation : advisor to the Director of the Russian Research Center – the Kurchatov Institute, deputy director of the Institute of Innovative Energy
E-mail : agagarin@kiae.ru
Biography :

Born in 1939. In 1962 he graduated the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI) and since then he has joined the Kurchatov Institute. Dr. Gagarinsky’s research interests include the physics of experimental nuclear reactors, critical security, pressurizedwater reactors, innovation technologies of nuclear fuel cycle and nuclear energy. He is one of the founders of the Soviet Nuclear Society and VicePresident of the Russian Nuclear Society. Dr. Gagarinsky is awarded with the Order of Courage for participation in the elimination of consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Member of the editorial boards of Atomnaya Energiya (Russia), Nukleonika (Poland), and International Journal of Nuclear Science and Technology.

Galuzin Mikhail image
Affiliation : Director of Third Asian Department in Russian MFA
E-mail : datr@mid.ru
Biography :

Served as an Advisor-Envoy at the Russian Embassy in Japan in 2001–2008.

Gaponenko Vadim image
City : Vladivostok, Russia
Affiliation : Vice-chancellor for Development and International Cooperation at Maritime State University named after adm. G.I. Nevelskoi
Biography :

Graduated from Naval Institute of Radio Electronics named after A.S. Popov. Served as the Director of Center for International Studies at Maritime State University. Member of Security Index journal Editorial Board, journal representative in Vladivostok.

Geleskul, Elena S. image
Biography :

Postgraduate student at Tomsk State University. Graduated from Novosibirks State Technical University. Participant of the International Summer schools of Tomsk State University in 2006 and 2007. Graduate of the International Summer School for Global Security 2008 at the Center for Policy Studies (Russia). Research interests: regime of nuclear non-proliferation and international security.

Gennady Evstafiev image
Biography :

Lieutenant-General (ret.) Evstafiev (25.08.1938 – 19.02.2013), a person of great fortitude, wisdom, and professionalism, dedicated all his health, strength, and intellect to serving his country and strengthening international security. We are very honored to have been able to work with such an amazing and knowledgeable person.

One of the patriarchs of nuclear nonproliferation has left us. No matter what office he held, Gennady Mikhailovich made considerable contributions to strengthen the nonproliferation and disarmament regime.  From 1981 to 1985, he served as Special Assistant to the UN Secretary-General, and from 1999-2000 as a member of the Secretary-General’s Advisory Board on Disarmament Matters. He was an active participant in the historical 1995 NPT Review and Extension Conference, as well as the Moscow Nuclear Safety and Security Summit in 1996.

Gennady Mikhailovich played a key role in preparing the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service’s public reports “A New Challenge After the Cold War: Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction” (1993) and “The Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons: Problems of Extension” (1995), which are still used today as key reference materials in the field. To this day, the publication of these reports remains an example of special services’ analytic work and ability to engage the public in dialogue. Thanks to the work of these authors, the world saw that Russia bases its arguments on facts and, no matter the circumstances, independently participates in the formation of a global nonproliferation and disarmament agenda.

Lieutenant-General Evstafiev was one of the people who, during the country’s hardest times, not only stayed dedicated to the task at hand, but was also able find solutions to global problems in a spirit of collaboration and while protecting national interests. From 1986 to 1991, Gennady Mikhailovich was one of the head Soviet delegates during the negotiation of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE Treaty) in Vienna before he went on to work for the Foreign Intelligence Service. From 2000-2003, he served at the Russian Permanent Mission to NATO, where he worked on combating terrorism and WMD proliferation. After retiring in 2003, he became a Senior Advisor and later Senior Vice President at the PIR Center, where he continued to dedicate himself to arms control issues and developing new security mechanisms in Europe.

For Gennady Mikhailovich, strengthening the nonproliferation and disarmament regime wasn’t just political rhetoric, it was a subject of in-depth analysis with the goal of finding optimal, balanced solutions. Back when people had essentially stopped thinking about saving the world from weapons of mass destruction, before big speeches and initiatives revived the topic, Gennady Mikhailovich published the article “Disarmament Returns” (Security Index 2007), in which he not only declared the acute relevance of this problem, he defined the lines along which this discussion takes place today. “The main mistake that people make is they fear today’s troubles more than tomorrow’s,” he said, and underlined that, “this means only one thing – we must learn to preempt the consequences of new military technology and classes of weapons with timely political and legal measures.”

This is precisely what Gennady Mikhailovich worked on at the PIR Center. He co-authored a 2005 monograph Unmanned aerial vehicles: history, application, threat of proliferation, and prospects of development – the first work to define the importance of this issue for Russia. Information security, nuclear energy and nonproliferation, Central Asia – Evstafiev was a part of these and many other PIR projects from the outset. Dozens of publications, hundreds of interviews and comments to the press – he was constantly working.

He will most certainly be remembered, today and forever more, by dozens of students – young diplomats, officers, and scholars, those for whom he was a mentor at work or during an internship, those who listened to his every word at Summer School and other training courses.

What did young scholars expect, and then receive, from their senior colleague? During conversations he would say such things like, “Be sure to pay attention to this question… It may be worth taking a closer look here… You should read this book here…” and then a new idea would form, and we would begin to see a pointed problem in its greater historical and political context, and the student would morph into a specialist in front of our eyes. A graduate of the Oriental Studies Department at Leningrad State University, Gennady Mikhailovich completed the colossal school of life and carried with him the best traditions of analysis and the deep understanding of regional and global processes. Along the way, he passed on these traditions and mental discipline to his students, for which we will be ever grateful.

Gennady Mikhailovich played a significant role at the PIR Center. He was with PIR even before its founding and stayed the course through our development. Over the course of almost 10 years, he served as a Senior Advisor and Senior Vice President of the PIR Center. With his direct participation, PIR expanded the scope of its work, transitioned from Yaderny Kontrol to Security Index, developed a new education and training program, and attracted new partners and friends. Each of us will treasure our memories of interacting with this extraordinary person, colleague, and mentor.

Photo gallery 

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Segments from the program “What is to be done? New nuclear states,” Kultura TV channel with Gennady Evstafiev’s participation, October 29, 2006 (in Russian).

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Gerasim, Mikhail G. image
Biography :

An engineer at the Reactor plant, Siberian Chemical Combine (SKhK) at Seversk, Tomsk Region. A graduate of the Physics and Technology Department of the Tomsk Polytechnical University. He trained at the PIR Center from June 3 till September 30, 2002. His sphere of scientific interest covers the problems of the handling of spent nuclear fuel, issues on the prohibition of the manufacture of fissile materials and production of the weapons grade plutonium, the HEU-LEU bilateral agreement, and the upgrading of safety and security of the nuclear power plants. He participated in the Program of Career Development for Young Specialists, arranged by the PIR Center in November 2003.

Golikov Alexander image
Affiliation : Executive Secretary of the Black Sea Biotechnological Association
E-mail : golikov@mac.com
Biography :

He is a biochemist who worked for many years in the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry in Moscow. He then was Deputy Director of the «AnalitEK – analytics in ecology» and Deputy Director of the Bioengineering Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In 1997–2001 he was an Academic Secretary of the InterAgency Governmental Commission for Genetic Engineering. In 1996–2000 he was a board member and rapporteur of the UN task force elaborating the Cartagena Protocol and UNEP expert on biological safety and security.

Goncharuk Artem image
E-mail : del17@yandex.ru
Biography :

In 2010-2011 - intern at the Chinese NPP Projects Department of Atomstroyexport, a leading Russian nuclear engineering company. Graduated from the National Nuclear Research University MEPHI in 2011. He has taken part in several nuclear conferences and authored six research papers. Winner of the Rosatom Stipend awarded to promising young nuclear scientists.

Gore, Albert image
Affiliation : American politician and philanthropist
Biography :

Albert “Al” Gore is an American politician and philanthropist. He is a former Vice President of the United States (1993-2001), and he ran for president twice (1988, 2000). From 1977-1985, he was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from the state of Tennessee, and in 1984 he was elected as a U.S. Senator from Tennessee, where he was reelected in 1990. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2007.

From the time he graduated Harvard University in 1969 to 1971, Gore served in the Army as a journalist. After he returned to the States, he worked as a reporter and then a columnist for the newspaper The Tennessean. While in the Senate, he sat on the Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, the Rules and Administration, the Energy and Commerce, the Science and Technology, and the Armed Services Committees. In 1992, he became the Vice President of the United States after a successful presidential campaign with Bill Clinton; they were reelected in 1996. In 1993, Gore and Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin signed the Russian-American intergovernmental agreement on the conversion of highly-enriched uranium, better known as the “Megatons to Megawatts” agreement.

In 2001, Gore became the Vice Chairman of the Board of Directors for the Los Angeles-based financial services holding company Metropolitan West Financial. He was also the president of the American tv channel “Current,” a board member at Apple Computer, and a senior advisor to Google. Gore is well known as an environmental activist and is the author of multiple books.

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