The research is devoted to the study of developing nuclear energy by one of the key Middle Eastern countries. It is divided into three sections: the driving factors for Saudi Arabia to develop nuclear power and non-proliferation concerns; the review of the nuclear energy suppliers to the Middle East; the Saudi Arabia-Russia cooperation and its prospects.


"At the PIR Center, or, better to say, with the PIR Center, I spent 22 years of my life... PIR Center is a good school of life. It works like a meat grinder. It grinds you, but as it should, and then it forms a very high-quality person. It gives you the right guidelines for the future life, with regard to interaction, attitude to work in general, responsibility, meeting deadlines, teamwork without any frames", ‒ Dmitry Polikanov, Member of the PIR Center Executive Board.


“The United States is increasingly entering long-term great powers’ strategic competition in cyberspace. In this regard, the USA needs a new strategy of actions in cyberspace – a strategy of a persistent engagement or constant implementation of proactive cyber operations that do not reach the level of an armed conflict”, ‒ PIR Center intern Sergeу Sebekin.

Working Group on the NPT Review Process: Biographies of Panelists

“U.S.-Russian Dialogue on the NPT Review Process:

Lessons Learned (1970-2017) and Steps Ahead (2018-2020)”

Working Group Third Meeting

December 8, 2017

Dr. Alexei Arbatov

Head of the Center for International Security, Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations; PIR Center Advisory Board Member

Arbatov is a former scholar in residence and the chair of the Carnegie Moscow Center’s Nonproliferation Program. Formerly, he was a member of the State Duma, vice chairman of the Russian United Democratic Party (Yabloko), and deputy chairman of the Duma Defense Committee. Arbatov is author of several books and numerous articles and papers on issues of global security, strategic stability, disarmament, Russian military reform, and various current domestic and foreign political issues. PIR Center Advisory Board member since 2004.

Ms. Sarah Bidgood

Senior Research Associate and Project Manager, James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey

Sarah Bidgood is a senior research associate and project manager at the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies in Monterey, California.  She focuses primarily on US-Soviet and US-Russia nonproliferation cooperation, as well as the international nonproliferation regime more broadly.  She was an intern at the UN Office for Disarmament Affairs in the WMD Branch during the time of the 2015 NPT Review Conference, in which capacity she assisted the Secretariat and the Chairs of Main Committee I and Subsidiary Body I. She has been a member of the CTBTO Youth Group since its inception in 2016. Ms. Bidgood holds a B.A. in Russian Language and Literature from Wellesley College, a Master’s Degree in Russian, East European, and Eurasian Studies from the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, and a Master’s Degree in Nonproliferation and Terrorism Studies from the Middlebury Institute of International Studies.

Amb. Alexey Borodavkin

Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the United Nations Office and other International Organizations in Geneva, Permanent Representative to the Conference on Disarmament

Born in 1950. In 1973 graduated from the Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO). Speaks English and Chinese. Has been working in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia since 1975. Held various diplomatic posts in the central office of the MFA and abroad. In 2002 - 2004 – Ambassador of the Russian Federation to the Slovak Republic, in 2004 - 2008 – Ambassador and Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) in Vienna, Austria, in 2008 - 2011 – Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation responsible for relations with Asian countries, multilateral cooperation in Asia and the Pacific. Since December 2011 - Ambassador and Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the United Nations Office and other International Organizations in Geneva.

Lt.-Gen. (Ret.) Evgeny Buzhinsky

Chairman of the Executive Board, PIR Center

Ph.D. in Military Sciences. In the Armed Services since 1968. Graduated from the Military Institute, M.V. Frunze Military academy. 1976-1992 – served in different positions as officer of the General Staff. From 1992 to 2009 – served in positions of: Senior Officer, Deputy Head of Direction, Head of Direction, Deputy Head of Department, Head of Department of the International Treaty Directorate of the Main Department of International Military Cooperation of the Russian Ministry of Defense. In 2002, he was appointed on the position of Head of the International Treaty Directorate – Deputy Head of the Main Department of International Military Cooperation of the Russian Federation Ministry of Defense. In 2009-2015 – PIR Center Consultant, then Senior Vice President. PIR Center's Chairman of the Executive Board since 2014. Lecturer of International School on Global Security since 2010, lecturer of PIR Center and MGIMO University Joint Module “WMD Nonproliferation and International Security” since 2013. Deputy CEO of "Vega Radio Engineering Corporation" since 2009. Member of Russian International Affairs Council. Member of PIR Center’s International Expert Group.

Hon. Thomas Countryman

Chair of the Board, Arms Control Association

Thomas M. Countryman is the Chair of the Board of the Arms Control Association.  He served as United States Assistant Secretary of State for International Security and Nonproliferation from 2011 to January 2017.  In 2009-10, he was the State Department's Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for Political-Military Affairs, and in 2010-11, he served as Deputy Assistant Secretary for European Affairs with responsibility for Balkan affairs. He was at the United States National Security Council in 1997-98 as Director for Near East and South Asian Affairs with responsibility for the region stretching from Morocco to Syria. From 1999 through 2000, he was Director of the State Department's Office of South Central European Affairs. He was then briefly Director of the State Department's Office of United Nations Political Affairs. He was then the Foreign Policy Advisor of General James T. Conway, Commandant of the Marine Corps, from 2008 to 2009. Mr. Countryman is a graduate of the Washington University in St. Louis and has studied at the John F. Kennedy School of Government.

Mr. Alexander Deineko

Deputy Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the United Nations Office and other International Organizations in Geneva

Deputy Director, Department for Disarmament and Security Affairs of the Russian Foreign Ministry (conventional arms issues) (October 2009 – November 2013). Mr. Deineko participated as a member of the Russian delegations at various international fora, including UN Conferences on ATT of 2012 and 2013, UNGA First Committee meetings, etc. He was Russian expert in the UN Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) on UN Register on Conventional Arms of 2013 and GGE on Missiles of 2007 – 2008. From 2006 till 2009 – Department for Disarmament and Security Affairs of the Russian Foreign Ministry. 2002 – 2006 – Russian Embassy in Washington D.C. 1996 – 2000, 1991 – 1994 – Russian Embassies in Iraq and Sudan. In 1989, he graduated from the Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO University) and joined the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the USSR/Russia. Mr. Alexander Deineko was born in 1962.

Hon. Lewis Dunn

Independent Consultant

Dr. Lewis A. Dunn now is an Independent Consultant after nearly three decades as a senior project manager and analyst at Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). He is devoting his time to analysis and writing on issues of reducing global nuclear risks, arms control and nuclear disarmament, and nuclear non-proliferation. As a former U.S. Ambassador for the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference, he continues to be actively engaged in NPT issues. He participates in the continuing process of semi-official U.S.-China strategic nuclear dialogues, with a focus on possible initiatives to put in place a process of U.S.-China mutual strategic reassurance and restraint. He also is a consultant to the Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI), providing support to the International Partnership for Nuclear Disarmament Verification.  He has recently been invited to become a member of the United Nations Secretary General’s Advisory Board on Disarmament. From 1987 until early 2017, Dr. Dunn was employed by SAIC, including over two decades as a senior manager before he decided to devote all of his time to analytic work. Dr. Dunn is a former Assistant Director of the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency and served as Ambassador to the 1985 Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty Review Conference. Prior to joining the Reagan Administration in 1981, he was a Senior Analyst at the Hudson Institute. From 1969-1974, he taught Political Science at Kenyon College. He has a Ph.D. from the University of Chicago.

Mr. Gleb Efremov

Director General, International Uranium Enrichment Center

Gleb Efremov is Bauman Moscow State Technical University graduate and has diplomas certifying his qualification in Mechanical Engineering (1996) and Software Development (2002). He started his professional activity in 2002 in JSC Tekhsnabeksport, and until 2009 was engaged in high-priority tasks including investments issues, gas centrifuges manufacturing, spent nuclear fuel and international projects. Before being appointed as Director General of International Uranium Enrichment Center (IUEC) in 2016, Gleb Efremov IUEC’s Commercial Director and was engaged in supervising of company commercial activity, negotiations with IAEA on placing IUEC nuclear materials under IAEA guarantees, nuclear safety and security-related issues among others.

Hon. Robert Einhorn

Senior Fellow, the Brookings Institution

Mr. Robert Einhorn is Senior Fellow in the Arms Control and Non-Proliferation Initiative and the Center for 21st Century Security and Intelligence at the Brookings Institution. He focuses on arms control (U.S.-Russia and multilateral), nonproliferation and regional security issues (including Iran, the greater Middle East, South Asia, and Northeast Asia), and U.S. nuclear weapons policies and programs. During his career at the U.S. Department of State, he served as Assistant Secretary for Nonproliferation in the Bill Clinton Administration and the Secretary's Special Advisor for Nonproliferation and Arms Control in the Barack Obama Administration. In that capacity, he played a leading role in the formulation and execution of U.S. policy toward Iran’s nuclear program, both with respect to sanctions and negotiations between Iran and the P5+1 countries. He also helped shape the Obama administration’s overall approach to nonproliferation; supported nonproliferation goals through diplomatic contacts with China, Russia, and key non-aligned countries; and addressed nuclear security and strategic stability challenges in South Asia. He played a key role in the development of the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review and served as U.S. delegation head in negotiations with South Korea on a successor civil nuclear agreement. Einhorn has written extensively in the area of arms control and nonproliferation. He authored "Negotiating from Strength: Leverage in U.S.-Soviet Arms Control Negotiations" (Praeger Publishers, 1984), co-edited "Protecting against the Spread of Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Weapons: An Action Agenda for the Global Partnership" (Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2003), and "The Nuclear Tipping Point: Why States Reconsider their Nuclear Choices" (Brookings Institution Press, 2004), and published numerous articles in such journals as SurvivalThe National InterestForeign PolicyArms Control TodayThe Washington QuarterlyThe Nonproliferation Review, and Yaderny Kontrol.

Amb. Sergey Kislyak

Deputy Head of the Federation Council Committee on Foreign Affairs

Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Russian Federation to the United States of America in 2008-2017. Served as Soviet and Russian diplomat for 40 years. In 1995-1998 – Director of Security and Disarmament Department at the Russian Foreign Ministry. In 1998-2003 – Ambassador of the Russian Federation to Belgium and Russia's permanent representative to NATO. In 2003-2007 – Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs. Ambassador Kislyak graduated from the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute in 1973 and the USSR Academy of Foreign Trade in 1977. He is fluent in English and French.

Mr. Adlan Margoev

"Russia and Nuclear Nonproliferation" Program Director, PIR Center

Graduate Student in the Dual Degree Program in WMD Nonproliferation at Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO University) and Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey (MIIS). PIR Center’s Consultant (2016-2017). Chair of the Student Academic Society at MGIMO University (2015-2016). Interned at PIR Center (2014) and at the Iran desk of the Second Asian Department, Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2015). Took part in PIR Center International School on Global Security (2015). Took a language course at the Allameh Tabataba’i University in Tehran (2015). Holds a BA degree in Regional Studies from MGIMO University (2016). Speaks English and Persian. Research interests: U.S.-Russian dialogue on the Iranian nuclear program, Russian Foreign Policy and Nonproliferation, Russian-Iranian and Russian-Georgian relations.

Amb. Yuri Nazarkin

Professor, Geneva School of Diplomacy and International Relations; Member of Centre russe d’etudes politiques, Geneve

In 1956-92 worked with the Soviet/Russian Foreign Ministry. Until 1967 dealt with African affairs, after – in the International Organizations Department specializing on arms control and disarmament. As a member of the Soviet delegation to ENDC (later CCD and CD) participated in the negotiations on NPT, BCW, Seabed convention, etc.  In 1985-86 he was the head of the Department of peaceful uses of nuclear energy and outer space. As an ambassador at large headed in 1987-89 the Soviet delegation in CD and led negotiations on CWC.  In 1989-91 led the Soviet delegation at the Nuclear and Space Talks with the US (START I). In 1992, he conducted the talks with Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan on their nuclear status and their participation in NPT. In 1992-95 was deputy secretary of the Security Council of the Russian Federation. After retirement (1995) Y. Nazarkin was an ad hoc consultant of the Russian parliament, MGIMO, a private Russian bank, Carnegie Moscow office.  Since 1996, August, he has been involved in teaching and research work in Switzerland: a senior faculty in the Geneva Center of Security Policy - GCSP (1996-2002); a senior researcher in the Organization on Democratic Control of Armed Forces - DCAF (2002-05); later – GSD.  Born in Moscow, 1932, Russian citizen.

Dr. Vladimir Orlov

DirectorCentre russe d’etudes politiques, Geneve; Founder & Special Advisor, PIR Center; Head, Center for Global Trends and International Organizations, Diplomatic Academy of the Russian Federation

Dr. Orlov is expert in international security and Russia’s foreign policy. His areas of research include major threats and challenges to international security, primarily, nuclear nonproliferation; Iranian nuclear program; proliferation challenges in the Middle East; as well as US-Russian and European-Russian relations in the framework of international security, and the prospects of cooperation on peace and security within BRICS. In April 1994, Dr. Orlov founded PIR Center (The Russian Center for Policy Studies), a private think tank dealing with international security and Russia’s foreign policy issues, now a leading Russian and international research and publishing non-governmental organization in this area. In April 2015, Dr. Orlov decided to step down as PIR Center’s CEO while remaining on Center’s Executive Board and concentrating on specific nuclear nonproliferation and other projects as Center’s Special Advisor. Since 2014, Dr. Orlov is the Head of the Diplomatic Academy’s Center for Global Trends and International Organizations. Dr. Orlov is constantly engaged in teaching and educational activities, giving lectures and expert comments on Russian foreign policy and on nuclear nonproliferation within Russia and abroad. His initiative culminated in establishment (in 2016) of the International Dual Degree MA Program in Nonproliferation and Global Security Studies – a joint project by the Moscow State Institute of International Affairs (MGIMO) of the Russian Foreign Ministry, Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey and PIR Center. He serves as academic consultant to the program and teaches Russian foreign and security policy as well as nuclear nonproliferation at MGIMO.

Prof. William Potter

Director, James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies at the Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey

Dr. William Potter is Sam Nunn and Richard Lugar Professor of Nonproliferation Studies and Founding Director of the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies at the Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey. He is the author or editor of over 20 books, the most recent of which are two volumes on Forecasting Nuclear Proliferation in the 21st Century (Stanford University Press, 2010), The Global Politics of Combating Nuclear Terrorism (2010), and Nuclear Politics and the Non-Aligned Movement (2012). Dr. Potter has served on numerous committees of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences and for five years was a member of the UN Secretary-General’s Advisory Board on Disarmament Matters. He has been an advisor to the delegation of Kyrgyzstan at every NPT Review Conference and Preparatory Committee meeting since 1995. Dr. Potter serves on the International Advisory Board of the Center for Policy Studies in Russia (Moscow) and is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations.

Ms. Daria Selezneva

Master’s Degree Candidate, MGIMO-MIIS Dual Degree Program

Daria Selezneva is a graduate student in the dual degree in Nonproliferation Studies program of the Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO) and the Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey (MIIS). Daria holds a BA degree in International Relations from the Ural Federal University, Russia. She wrote her thesis on the Swedish policy dealing with nonproliferation of nuclear weapons in the 1990s-2000s. Daria’s Master’s thesis for her current program is “History of US-Russia/Soviet Cooperation on Drafting and Revision of the Articles I, II and X of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.”

Dr. Petr Topychkanov

Fellow, Carnegie Moscow Center’s Nonproliferation Program

Senior researcher at Center for International Security, Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations. Petr Topychkanov has been an expert at the Russian International Affairs Council (RIAC) since 2014, a participant of the Program on Strategic Stability Evaluation at the Georgia Institute of Technology (Atlanta, Georgia) since 2009, and an associate of the South and Central Asia Project at the York Centre for Asian Research (Toronto, Canada) since 2015. Petr Topychkanov earned his doctorate in history from the Institute of Asian and African Studies at Moscow State University in 2009. In 2007–2008, he was awarded the Presidential Scholarship, and in 2010–2011 he was a Stanton Nuclear Security Fellow. Petr Topychkanov’s articles are frequently published in the press.

Mr. Paul Warnke

Master’s Degree Candidate, Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey

Paul Warnke is currently a political affairs intern in the UN Office for Disarmament. He is also a master’s degree candidate in Nonproliferation and Terrorism Studies from the Middlebury Institute of International Studies. Additionally, he worked at the Fundação Getúlio Vargas in Brazil, where he conducted research on Brazil's nuclear program. Mr. Warnke received his Bachelor's Degree in History from Middlebury College.