The Chinese conduct an atmospheric nuclear explosion. It is the last atmospheric nuclear explosion on the Earth.
The PRC carries out its first atomic bomb test. The charge yield is 22 kilotons. The PRC makes a statement on non-use of nuclear weapons and vows not to threaten non-nuclear weapons states.



The research is aimed at analyzing the military-technical aspects of strategic offensive arms control. By reviewing the nuclear doctrines and the available open-source data on the two countries’ respective nuclear arsenals, the author analyzes the impact of the New START Treaty implementation on the U.S. and Russian nuclear arsenals as well as discusses the potential implication of the two countries’ nuclear forces modernization programs on the future arms control agreements. The paper is structured into four sections, discussing the state and development of Russian and U.S. nuclear forces in 2011-2021, the two countries’ nuclear forces modernization plans and relevant discussions within expert and policymaking communities.


AUKUS, Russian-American talks in Geneva, JCPOA, gender in international security, CTBTO - these and other topics were touched upon and explored by our authors in the new issue of the electronic journal "Yaderny Kontrol". 


"I think world politics makes sense if we believe in the idea of progress. You know, it seems to me that there are two views of the world: cyclical – everything develops in a circle, there are cycles of peace and war, all states are created and disintegrate – and then, it seems to me, there is no special meaning in international politics. But there is another point of view: everything is spiraling, the world is becoming more humane and stable. And then progress can be considered the meaning. This idea is closer to me," – Andrey Kortunov, Director General of RIAC.

Transcripts and materials of the Trialogue Club meetings

Alexander Gabuev, Member of the PIR Center Advisory Board, Senior Fellow and the Chair of Russia in the Asia-Pacific Program at the Carnegie Moscow Center. Asymmetric Triangle: Deepening of U.S.-China Confrontation and its Implications for Russia. Trialogue Club International meeting. April 7, 2021. Speaker's theses. Transcript of the meeting.

Dmitry Evstafiev, professor of the National Research University “Higher School of Economics”. Andrei Kortunov, member of the PIR Center Advisory Board, Director of the Russian International Affairs Council. Biden in the White House: What Does It Mean for Russian Foreign Policy and for Russian-American Relations. Part 1. Part 2Trialogue Club International meeting. December 18, 2020.

Oleg Stepanov, Director of the Foreign Policy Planning Department of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. National Interests and Foreign Policy of Russia. Trialogue Club International meeting. September 28, 2020.

Sergey Ryabkov, Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia. 50 years of ratification of the NPT by the Soviet Union and its entry into force: lessons of the past, projection into the future. Trialogue Club International meeting. March 12, 2020. Speaker's theses

Cynthia LazaroffFounder of NuclearWakeUpCall.Earth and documentary filmmaker and Bruce Allyn, Senior Fellow, Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School. US-Russia relations: the quest for stability. Part 1, part 1.2, part 2, part 2.1, part 2.2Trialogue Club International meeting. December 2, 2019. 

Alexey Gromyko, Director of the Institute of Europe of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS). The Future of European Security. Does European Security Model Work for Other Regions? Trialogue Club International meeting. November 6, 2019. 

Feodor Voytolovskiy, Director of IMEMO. Will multilateral security model survive the new great power struggle? Trialogue Club International meeting. October 15, 2019. 

Viktor Sumsky, Director of the ASEAN Centre at MGIMO University. America’s Indo-Pacific Strategy: A Memo for Eurasia. Trialogue Club International meeting. May 28, 2019. 

Oleg Rozhkov, Deputy Director of the Russian Foreign Ministry Department for Nonproliferation and Arms Control. Scenarios for the Korean Peninsula Denuclearization. Nuclear, Technical, and Military Aspects. Trialogue Club International meeting. March 21, 2019. 

Vladimir Orlov, PIR Center Founder. From cyber tensions to cyber wars? US-Russian relations in the area of international information security. Trialogue Club International meeting. December 4, 2018. 

Vasily Kuznetsov. Head of the Center for Arab and Islamic Studies, Russian Acadeny of Sciences. What is going on in Libya? Interests, positions and priorities of Russian policy in this country. Trialogue Club International meeting. November 21, 2018. 

Sergey Ryabkov. Deputy Foreign Minister of the Russian Federation. The State of the Russia-U.S. Dialogue and Global Security. Trialogue Club International meeting. September 12, 2018. 

Vitaly Naumkin. President of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of SciencesSettlement of the Syrian Conflict: Prospects for National Dialogue and International Cooperation. Rationale Behind Russian PoliciesTrialogue Club International meeting joint with Embassy of Switzerland,  April 18, 2018.

Vladimir Yermakov. Director of the Department for Nonproliferation and Arms Control of the Russian MFA. Key challenges to arms control and nonproliferation. Russian diplomacy approaches and prospects of international cooperation. Trialogue Club International meeting.  March 27, 2018.

Amb. Sergey Kislyak. First Deputy Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the Council of Federation, in 2008-2017 – Ambassador of the Russian Federation to the United States of America. Prospects of the Russian - US Relations and their Impact on Global Security. Trialogue Club International meeting. December 12, 2017.

Vitaly Naumkin. President of the Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences. What is going on in the Middle East? Russia's interests and logic of action in the region. Trialogue Club International meeting. June 20, 2017. 

Amb. Viktor Vasilyev. Ambassador-at-large of the Russian Federation Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Plenipotentiary Representative of the Russian Federation to the Collective Security Treaty Organization. Russian approaches towards international cooperation in addressing security challenges in Afghanistan and Central Asia. Trialogue Club International meeting. April 18, 2017. 

Amb. Sergey Ryabkov. Deputy Foreign Minister of the Russian Federation. Russia-United States relations and the future of global security. Trialogue Club International meeting. January 31, 2017. 

Dr. Leonid Grigoryev, Chief Adviser to the Head of the Analytical Сentre for the Government of the Russian Federation, Tenured professor of National Research University Higher School of Economics. New situation in the energy markets, Russia's interests and international politics. Trialogue Club International meeting. December 6, 2016. 

Dr. Victor Sumsky, Director of ASEAN Center at MGIMO University of the Russian MFA. Russia's pivot to East - ASEAN dimension: impacts, challenges and prospects. Trialogue Club International meeting. July 6, 2016. 

Dr. Ivan Safranchuk, Editor-in-Chief, The Great Game: politics, business, security in Central Asia journal. Development of the situation in Afganistan and security threats to Central Asia. Russian security policy in the region. Trialogue Club International meeting. April 14, 2016.

Dr. Vitaly Naumkin, President, Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Situation in Syria and Russian policy in the Middle East – the results of the outgoing year and scenarios for 2016. Trialogue Club International meeting. December 17, 2015.

Oleg Demidov, Member of the Research Advisory Network under the Global Commission on Internet Governance (RAN CGIG), Consultant at PIR Center. Russia-China-United States: Setting the Global Rules of the Game in Cyberspace.  Trialogue Club International meeting. September 29, 2015.

Amb. Sergey Ryabkov. Deputy Foreign Minister of the Russian Federation. The outcomes of negotiations on Iranian nuclear program in the regional and global context. Trialogue Club International meeting. July 16, 2015. 

Dr. Vladimir Orlov, Director of PIR Center. Europe minus Russia: 12 months of new reality; and what about next 12 months?  Trialogue Club International meeting. March 19, 2015

Vladimir NechaevDeputy Director General of The International Training and Methodology Centre for Financial Monitoring. Results of Russian chairmanship of The Financial Action Task Force. Trialogue Club International meeting. December 16, 2014

Russia and Nuclear Nonproliferation Agenda: towards the 2015 NPT Review Conference. Trialogue Club International meeting. October 4, 2014

Viktor Vasiliev, Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the CSTO. CSTO today: new answers to the external challenges. Trialogue Club International meeting. July 8, 2014.

Evgeny Buzhinsky, PIR Center Senior Vice President. Conventional arms control in Europe: a new agenda – the Russian approach. Joint meeting of the Centre russe d’études politiques and the Trialogue Club International, March 12, 2014.

Armen Oganesyan, Andrey Suzdaltsev, Dmitri Trenin. Further developments in Ukraine, Russia’s relations with the West and the neighbors: what should we expect? Trialogue Club International Meeting, March 5, 2014

Dmitry G. Efstafiev, Evgeny P. Buzhinsky, Vadim B. Kozuylin, Vladimir A.Orlov, Mikhail V. Yakushev. Russia and global security – what should we expect in 2014? The 20th anniversary Trialogue club international meeting, February 10, 2013.

Konstantin Kosachev , Head of the Federal Agency for the Commonwealth of Independent States, Compatriots Living Abroad and International Humanitarian Cooperation (Rossotrudnichestvo). Foreign policy priorities and the soft power of Russia. Trialogue Club International meeting, October 15, 2013.

Mikhail Margelov, Chair of the Committee for Foreign Affairs, Council of Federation of the Federal Assembly and Special Representative of the President of the Russian Federation on the cooperation with African countries.The Arc of Instability across the Middle East and the Sahel: Russia's Approaches. Trialogue Club International meeting, July 4, 2013.

Anatoly Antonov, Deputy Minister of Defence of RF. Long-Range Precision-Guided Conventional Weapons: Implications for Arms Control and Strategic Stability. Joint meeting of members of the Centre russe d’etudes politiques and the Trialogue Club International. April 24, 2013

Vyacheslav Nikonov, Chairman of the RF State Duma Committee on Education. Russian Foreign Policy: A View by Lawmaker and Expert. Trialogue Club Meeting of March 27, 2013

Arnaud Leclercq, Partner, Lombard Odier Capital Partners. Prospects of the Russian Economy and Finances and their Role in the Global Economy. Meeting of the Trialogue Club International, November 20, 2012

Deputy Director of the Department on New Challenges and Threats of the Russian Foreign Ministry Dmitry Feoktistov. “Money Laundering and Terrorism Financing Issues in the light of Russia's Presidency in FATF in 2013-2014”. (in Russian) Meeting of the Trialogue Club International, July 10, 2012.

Ralph Weber, PhD, professor, University of Zurich, Switzerland  "Global Internnet Governance and International Information Security" Meeting of the Trialogue Club International, April 26, 2012

Vadim Lukov, Ambassador-at-Large, Deputy Representative of the President of Russia in the G8, Ministry Coordinator for G20 and BRICS affairs. “Russia as axis state in BRICS, G8 and G20: challenges and opportunities” (in Russian) Meeting of the Trialogue Club International, April 11, 2012

Deputy Foreign Minister of the Russian Federation Sergei Ryabkov. “Iranian Nuclear Crisis: Challenges to the Non-Proliferation Regime” (in Russian) Meeting of the Trialogue Club International, October 27, 2011

Valery Fedorov, Director General of the Russian Public Opinion Research Center "Modernization in Russia: what is Society Ready for(in Russian) Meeting of the Trialogue Club International, June 30, 2011

Anatoly Antonov, Deputy Minister of Defense of Russia. "Perspectives of Russia-US Relations in Military and Political Sphere" (in Russian), Meeting of the Trialogue Club International, March 30, 2011

Ilya Rogachev, Director of the Department of New Challenges and Threats, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. "New Criminal Challanges and Threats to International Security - Russian Answer" (in Russian).  Meeting of the Trialogue Club International, December 1, 2010.

Evgeny Buzhinsky, Lieutenant-General, Head of the International Treaty Directorate of the Main Department of International Military Cooperation of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation (2002-2009). “Russia-NATO Cooperation - the Outcomes of Lisbon Summit (in Russian).  Meeting of the Trialogue Club International, November 24, 2010

Nikolai Makarov, Army General, Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Russia, First Deputy Minister of Defence. "New Army of the Russian Federation" (in Russian).  Meeting of the Trialogue Club International, June 17, 2010

Yury Baluyevsky, Army General, Deputy Secretary of the Security Council of the Russian Federation "New military doctrine of the Russian Federation" (in Russian).  Meeting of the Trialogue Club International, March 24, 2010

Vyacheslav Trubnikov, Ambassador of Russia to India (2004-2009) “Perspectives of Strategic Relations between Russia and India” (in Russian).  Meeting of the Trialogue Club International, March 3, 2010