Experts

Security Index journal Editorial Board
Orlov, Vladimir A. image
Orlov, Vladimir A.
  • Position : Special Advisor
  • Affiliation : PIR Center
Spassky, Nikolai N. image
Spassky, Nikolai N.
  • Affiliation : Deputy Director General, Rosatom State Corporation for Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation
complete list
Security Index Journal Authors
Orlov, Vladimir A. image
Orlov, Vladimir A.
  • Position : Special Advisor
  • Affiliation : PIR Center
Spassky, Nikolai N. image
Spassky, Nikolai N.
  • Affiliation : Deputy Director General, Rosatom State Corporation for Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation
complete list

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2013, №103, Security Index

Security Index image
Issue: №103
Text:

SECURITY INDEX (International Edition)

NO. 2 (103), Spring 2013

CONTENTS

FROM THE EDITOR

Life after Nunn-LugarVladimir Orlov

“The U.S Cooperative Threat Reduction program, also known as the Nunn-Lugar program, has already reached a ripe old age, by the standards applied to such initiatives. The program was conceived during a transitional period in Russian statehood and was especially helpful during the turbulent years when Russia was struggling to finance even the most basic nuclear security measures. The program is now due to expire in May 2013,”– writes Editor-in-Chief of the Security Index journal, Vladimir Orlov, in “From the Editor.”

INTERVIEW

Nuclear Energy as a Tool to Promote Peace and Security in the Middle East Nikolay Spassky

The 2010 NPT Review Conference reaffirmed the importance of the Resolution on the Middle East adopted by the 1995 Review and Extension Conference, which called upon all countries in the region to take practical steps aimed at making progress towards the establishment of a Middle EastWMD-free zone. How can nuclear energy cooperation help this process? What does nuclear power mean for the Middle East region? What is Russia doing in this respect? Deputy Director General of Russia’s Nuclear Energy State Corporation Rosatom, Amb. Nikolay Spassky provides answers to these questions.

How to Avoid Conflict Escalation in CyberspaceJamie Saunders

During the last years, a number of destructive malwares like Stuxnet and Flame were released into cyber space and caused physical damage to critical infrastructure in some states, including Iran. Would it be possible now to establish a legally binding international regime in the field of cyber security? Could the Budapest Convention on Cybercrime be regarded as a potential basis for establishing a global mechanism aimed at countering cybercrime? These questions are addressed by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office Director for International Cyber Policy (UK) Jamie Saunders.

ANALYSIS

Further Nuclear Arms Limitation: Factors and ProspectsAnatoly Antonov

The New START treaty betweenRussiaand theUnited Statesstipulates a large number of measures which must be accomplished within a clearly defined time frame. The question is, what next? Are deeper strategic offensive arms reductions after the expiration of New START possible, or indeed necessary? Strategic offensive arms reductions are not an end in themselves. The notion of such reductions initially aimed to maintain the security of parties at lower levels of nuclear arsenals. Analyzing determining factors and possible scenarios, the author calls for the establishment of a new multilateral regime.

Nuclear Energy: Lessons from the Past, Current Problems, and New InitiativesViktor Murogov

The role of nuclear energy as a factor of stability and sustainable economic, social and political growth will increase. Nevertheless, there is a need for discussion on measures that would help achieve consensus on solutions to nonproliferation issues, as well as safe development of an environmentally-compatible nuclear fuel cycle. Small and developing countries must see the need for and benefits of multilateral nuclear initiatives; they must understand what changes they should make in their national programs, and clearly see all the pros and cons of participation.

U.S. Digital Diplomacy: Impact on International Security and Opportunities for RussiaElena Zinovyeva

The term digital diplomacy, which has recently gained popularity along with such terms as Internet diplomacy, social networks diplomacy, and Web 2.0 diplomacy, was initially used in the context of U.S. foreign policy. It denoted the broad use of information and telecommunication technologies, including new media, social networks, blogs, and other media platforms on the Internet. At present, several other countries besides theUnited States are pursuing digital diplomacy programs. What’s happening in Russia?

Resilience of RussiaArnaud Leclercq

The place and role of Russia in the XXI century remains a controversial discussion point among political scientists, economists, sociologists, and historians. What should the Russian state seek – to become a regional or global power? Does Russia still need to align itself with Western values, or maybe in the East there are more profitable acquisitions lying in wait for Russia? What role does Russia’s rich natural resources and human potential in its development play? The author brings together economic and geopolitical factors and presents a picture of modern Russia with a unique geostrategic position of Eurasian power.

Qatar: Russia’s Ambitious Competitor on the Gas MarketEldar Kasayev

Both Russia and Qatar have plans to diversify their economies, but both remain heavily dependent on the production of raw materials, with oil and gas exports generating the bulk of their governments’ revenues. Assessing the current state of economic relations between Russia and Qatar, especially in the context of the development of the Gas Exporting Countries Forum, the author concludes that the Qatari gas sector’s development is not only the foundation of the country’s financial well-being, but also a serious hindrance to Russian interests.

ROUND TABLE

The Future of Non-Strategic Nuclear Weapons in Europe: Options AvailableEvgeny Buzhinsky, Anatoly Dyakov, Evgeny Ilyin, Alexander Kolbin, Viktor Koltunov, Mikhail Kustovsky, Vladimir Orlov, Alexander Radchuk, and Vladimir Rybachenkov

Proponents of non-strategic nuclear weapons (NSNW) reductions stepped up their rhetoric in 2010. The new NATO Strategic Concept adopted in 2010 and the U.S. Senate’s resolution on the ratification of the New START treaty include paragraphs which allege a disparity between U.S. and Russian NSNW stockpiles. However, neitherRussia nor theUnited States has ever published official figures about the numbers of NSNW in their arsenals. What is the precise definition of non-strategic nuclear weapons (NSNW)? Should NSNW talks be held in a bilateral or multilateral format? And will the initiatives on NSNW reductions inEurope yield any tangible results? The round table participants elaborate on these issues.

COMMENTARY

Nuclear Deterrence as a Belief SystemAlexander Kmentt

What is the non-nuclear weapon state (NNWS) perspective on the current situation in disarmament and nonproliferation? Despite the successful 2010 Review Conference and despite the reductions in nuclear weapons (NWs) numbers between Russia and the United States, such as through the new START treaty, it is disappointing for NNWSs to see how little progress has been made since the end of the Cold War to fundamental changes in the approach to NWs.

High Tech on BRICS Agenda: What Could Russia Propose?Andrey Baklitsky, Evgeny Buzhinsky, Pavel Luzin, and Oleg Demidov

Economic growth and the combined demographic, scientific and industrial potential of the BRICS countries have turned the bloc into a global leader. BRICS nations are already working closely in financial spheres, but there is clear room for improvement in terms of cooperation in high-tech industries, which are crucial to international security and economic growth. PIR Center experts analyze the most promising areas of high-tech cooperation in the BRICS framework including countering cyberthreats, safe and secure development of nuclear energy, peaceful space exploration, and high-tech logistics technologies.

Stuxnet and Nuclear Enrichment of the Cyber Security RegimeMaksim Simonenko

After the emergence of the Stuxnet virus, supposedly targeted at Iran’s nuclear infrastructure, the importance of the connection between nuclear and information technologies has increased drastically. Experts and media commentators speculate that the malware was written specifically to disrupt industrial control systems (ICS) at Iran's Bushehr nuclear power plant and the enrichment facility at Natanz. How can experience from the nuclear era be used to strengthen the global cyber security regime?

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

PIR Center Advisory Board, International Expert Group, and Sustainable Partnership with Russia Group members

FINAL QUOTES

On Great Ideas

 

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