The Additional Protocol on the IAEA Safeguards comes into force for China.
The signing of the Agreement between Russia and Kazakhstan on Strategic Nuclear Forces Temporarily Located in the Kazakhstan Territory.
An accident at the Three Mile Island-2 nuclear power plant in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania (U.S.) results in severe reactor vessel damage.

International Security Index iSi




On March 12, 2020, an extended meeting of the Trialogue Club Internationaltookplace.Its topic was “50 Years after Ratification of the NPT by the Soviet Union and its Entry into Force: Lessons Learned and Prospects for Strengthening of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Regime”


Verification is a key and indispensable element of nuclear arms control and nuclear disarmament. Any substantive discussion on the future of strategic stability, nuclear arms race limitation, and the prospects for nuclear disarmament becomes pointless if it fails to address verification. To answer the question of what verification should look like in the future, leading Russian and foreign experts analyze the experience of the implementation of bilateral agreements between the Soviet Union/Russia and the United Sates and look at various international mechanisms. For the first time, Russian experts offer a comprehensive assessment of the approaches proposed by the International Partnership for Nuclear Disarmament Verification (IPNDV) and other new initiatives in this field.


"Coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) poses a real threat to public safety and well-being. Europe has become the epicenter of the outbreak. The situation in Europe is getting worse by every hour. Although the situation in Russia is yet relatively safe, the fact that the pandemic is raging along the perimeter of Russia’s borders cannot be ignored. Risks for Russia are increasing",  Director of PIR Center Dr. Vladimir A. Orlov.

Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia

“The fact that the Treaty on the Nuclear-Weapons-Free-Zone in Central Asia entered into force is a notable success for the international non-proliferation regime. It is especially important against the background of recent challenges and crises facing the regime in recent years, as well as in the absence of any other remarkable progress and breakthroughs. Surrounded by zones of nuclear instability from Middle East through Pakistan to East Asia, being a victim of nuclear tests, Central Asia deserves to have a nuclear weapons free zone on the land of its nations”.

President of PIR Center Vladimir Orlov

On March 21, 2009 the Treaty of the Nuclear-Weapons-Free-Zone in Central Asia signed by the Republic of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, the Republic of Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Republic of Uzbekistan in Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan) on September 8, 2006, entered into force.


Its member-states undertake to ban production, acquisition and deployment of nuclear weapons and its components or other nuclear explosive devices on their territories. At the same time, the Treaty allows using nuclear energy for peacful purposes.

A new zone in Central Asia has a number of unique features: it is the first weapons-free-zone in the Northern hemishere, in a region neighboring nuclear Russia and China. Also the Treaty has become the first multilateral security agreement which includes all five Central Asian countries.

The UN Secretary General Ban Ki Moon noted that it would be the first NWFZ in a region where nuclear weapons previously existed. He also pointed out one more feature of the Treaty: it is the first one that would require its members to sign Additional Protocol with the IAEA and to follow obligations of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.



Declaration on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free World (12 October 2011, Astana, Kazakhstan)

Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia (with Protocol and Rules of Procedure to Implement Article 10 of the Treaty) (8 September 2006, Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan)


Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia (Treaty of Semipalatinsk, CANWFZ Treaty) (in Russian) (a chapter from the project of the 3rd issue of the Textbook "Nuclear Non-Proliferation")

"Kazakhstan Regrets that NPT is Asymmetric and Not Efficient Enogh" (in Russian) (Security Index, No.1 (100), 2012. PP.37-46)

On Ways toward a World without Nuclear Weapons (in Russian) (Security Index, No.1 (88), 2009. PP.19-30)

Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia: How to Get Support of the Nuclear Five? (in Russian) (Security Index, No.3 (86), 2008. PP.77-84)

Treaty of Semipalatinsk (in Russian) (an article from the brief encyclopedia "Nuclear Non-Proliferation")

Central Asia: S.O.S for Nuclear Zero (Security Index, No.3 (85), Volume 14, 2008. PP.123-129)

The Russian Position on the Creation of a Nuclear-Weapons-Free Zone in Central Asia (Yaderny Control (Nuclear Control) Digest No.9. Winter 1998/1999. PP.15-24)


Treaty on the Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia entered into force (PIR-PRESS, 10 April 2009)

The unique feature of the draft Treaty establishing a nuclear-weapon-free zone in Central Asia is its provision making compliance with the IAEA Additional Protocol legally binding for the states of the region (PIR-PRESS, 8 September 2006)