South African President F. De Klerk ends development of nuclear weapons and eliminates available nuclear devices.
The Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency enters into force.
The USSR resumes nuclear tests, citing a lack of action on its initiatives by other nuclear weapons states, primarily the U.S.
The USSR decides to create thermonuclear weapons.

International Security Index iSi




“As a journalist I know well how much more open and straight forward officials are when in an off the record modus. The upcoming discussions within the Trialogue Club International format in 2020 will give us all – so I hope – the possibility to better and deeper understand Russia’s foreign and security policy, to ask frank questions and get sincere answers”, - Dr. Elena V. Chernenko, Co-Chair, Trialogue Club International, PIR Center Executive Board member, Deputy Foreign Editor, Kommersant Daily.




“The program is tailored to people with a very specific interest in nuclear issues. Getting to work with people who had been very active in the field of nonproliferation, both on the Russian and American side, is an opportunity few students get”, Dual Degree Master`s Program student Collin MacDowell.


"Strategic stability in its classical sense – understood as a state of US- Russian relations under which neither side has incentives to launch a first nuclear strike – was developed during the Cold War", - a consultant at PIR Center Andrey Baklitskiy

This paper has been produced for the joint PIR Center – CSIS project “Reducing nuclear risks during Great Powers Competition”. We thank our partners in CSIS for their cooperation and support for this publication

Vladimir A. Orlov

Dr. Orlov is expert in international security and Russia’s foreign policy. His areas of research include major threats and challenges to international security, primarily, nuclear nonproliferation; Iranian nuclear program; proliferation challenges in the Middle East; as well as US-Russian and European-Russian relations in the framework of international security, and the prospects of cooperation on peace and security within BRICS.

Vladimir A. Orlov was born in Moscow in 1968. After receiving degree with honors from the Foreign Ministry's Moscow State Institute of International Affairs (MGIMO), where he specialized in international journalism and Latin American studies, Dr. Orlov completed an internship at the USSR Consulate in Havana, Cuba. After that he began his career as a journalist at the offices of the Novosti Press Agency (now known as RIA Novosti), rising through the ranks from a columnist to a political commentator, section head, Vice President and, finally, to a member of the Executive Board of the Moskovskiye Novosti (Moscow News) company.

In April 1994, Dr. Orlov founded PIR Center (The Russian Center for Policy Studies), a private think tank dealing with international security and Russia’s foreign policy issues, now a leading Russian and international research and publishing non-governmental organization in this area. After 21 years of his leadership at the PIR Center, as the institute’s Director (President), in April 2015 Dr. Orlov decided to step down as PIR Center’s CEO while remaining on Center’s Executive Board and concentrating on specific nuclear nonproliferation and other projects.

In 1994, Dr. Orlov launched the first Russian journal on nonproliferation issues, Yaderny Kontrol (Nuclear Control). In 2007 the journal was developed into Security Index (Indeks Bezopasnosti), with both Russian and global (English-language) editions. In 2012, the publication celebrated its landmark 100th issue, which was launched in Moscow, Geneva, and Vienna. Altogether, 112 issues of the journal were produced with Dr. Orlov’s leadership as its editor-in-chief. In 2015, Dr. Orlov invited a new team to further develop the journal, and he currently stands on the journal’s Editorial Board. 

In 1994 and later during 1999-2002, Dr. Orlov, while continuing his work in Moscow, was a Visiting Scholar and Senior Research Associate at the Middlebury Institute of International Studies in Monterey, California.

In 2001-2002, the U.N. Secretary-General appointed Dr. Orlov as a U.N. consultant on disarmament and nonproliferation education. As a result of the work done by the group of governmental experts, the Secretary-General issued a report that formed the basis for a U.N. General Assembly Resolution (2002).

In 2004, Dr. Orlov became a professor at the Geneva Centre for Security Policy, and in 2005 he was named Co-Director of the GCSP European Training Course in Security Policy – position he kept until 2008, when he decided to concentrate on the development of the PIR Center's European branch in Geneva. He continues to lecture at the GCSP as a guest speaker on nuclear nonproliferation.

Dr. Orlov took an active part in the analysis of the top issues on the agenda and in the development of recommendations on key items of Russia's G8 presidency, and was also a participant of the G8 summit in St.-Petersburg (2006).

Since 1995, Dr. Orlov took part in the work of all NPT Review Conferences. Since 2010, as a member of the Russian delegation, he has participated at the NPT Review Conferences (2010, 2015) and the sessions of the Preparatory Committee for Review Conferences (2012-2014).

Dr. Orlov represented PIR Center at the meeting with Vladimir Putin on global threats to international security and on shaping defense policy of the Russian Federation in February 2012 in Sarov, Russia.

Starting 2008, Dr. Orlov has been working on the concept of BRIC, later BRICS, and its development, particularly when peace and security issues are concerned. He is a member of the Russian National Committee for BRICS Studies Research Council and participated in the BRICS Academic Forums in Durban (2013), Rio-de-Janeiro (2014), and Goa (2016).

In 2014-2016, Dr. Orlov was a member of the Global Agenda Council on Nuclear Security at the World Economic Forum.

Since 2014, Dr. Orlov is the Head of the Diplomatic Academy’s Center for Global Trends and International Organizations.

Dr. Orlov is a member of the UN Secretary General’s Advisory Board on Disarmament Matters (till 2019).

Dr. Orlov is a member of the Trialogue Club International, which he founded in 1993. He is the founder (in 2006) of the Centre russe d'etudes politiques, a Geneva-based research and consultancy association.

Dr. Orlov participates in the activity of a number of international centers and groups in the sphere of international security. Among others, he is a member of the Russian National Committee for BRICS Studies Research Council; a member of the Russian Council of Foreign and Defense Policy (SVOP); a member of International Nuclear Energy Academy (INEA); a member of the Russian Pugwash Committee under the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS); a member of the Washington Quarterly Editorial Board.

Dr. Orlov is constantly engaged in teaching and educational activities, giving lectures and expert comments on Russian foreign policy and on nuclear nonproliferation within Russia and abroad. His initiative culminated in establishment (in 2016) of the International Dual Degree MA Program in Nonproliferation and Global Security Studies – a joint project by the Moscow State Institute of International Affairs (MGIMO) of the Russian Foreign Ministry, Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey and PIR Center. He serves as academic consultant to the program and teaches Russian foreign and security policy as well as nuclear nonproliferation at MGIMO. He also gives lectures in Geneva, Bishkek, and Monterey. Vladimir Orlov is executive editor and co-author of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Textbook in two volumes.

Being a regular contributor to the Security Index , Dr. Orlov also publishes his views in Russian and foreign periodicals such as the International Affairs (Mezhdunarodnaya Zhizn) journal, Russia in Global Affairs magazine, the Washington Quarterly magazine, the Seguridad International  journal, and the Kommersant – a leading Russian policy daily newspaper. He is author (or coauthor) of more than a dozen books and monographs and more than three hundred research papers, articles, and essays.

Dr. Orlov speaks English and Spanish. His hobbies include Russian classical literature, photography, hiking in the mountains, and bicycle touring in the tropics.

Dr. Orlov’s blog is on PIR Center’s website ( He is on Twitter (Orlov_pircenter) on professional subjects (in English), and on Facebook (VladimirAOrloff), mostly in Russian, with a mix of his professional expertise and travel-related experiences. (03/19)