Articles

Russian International Affairs Council

July 1, 2020

 

For Russia, the military developments and strategies of the United States recreate those challenges and threats that the USSR associated with President Ronald Reagan’s Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Adopted in 1984, the SDI programme involved...

Towards Global Security Through Equal Rights and Consensus image

The international relations system has been in the process of transformation since the early 1990-s. Today one may unequivocally say that the unipolar project, which has been constructed by the USA with the help of its allies, did not materialize.  There began the construction of a more just multipo...

NATO nuclear sharing arrangements: whether they are compliant with the NPT. Assessment of the current situation in the context of the upcoming NPT Review Conference. image

Throughout the Cold War, there was a race for the development and production of new types of nuclear weapons between the two great powers, the USA and the USSR. Both countries were deploying these weapons in Europe. After the collapse of the USSR, all nuclear weapons from the post-Soviet space were ...

The editors decided to shift the focus a little from the problems of nuclear nonproliferation and arms control and talk about people. Nikita Degtyarev, PIR Center Information & Publications Program Coordinator, interviewed Sarah Bidgood, Director of the Eurasia Nonproliferation Program at the James ...

On June 2nd President Putin signed an executive order, which approved the Basic Principles of State Policy of the Russian Federation on Nuclear Deterrence. Even without considering the contents of the “Basic Principles”, it would not be an exaggeration to say that it is a development of major import...

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Experts

Abe, Nobuyasu image
City : Tokyo
Affiliation : Director of the Center for the Promotion of Disarmament and Non-Proliferation at Japan Institute of International Affairs.
Biography :

He has served as Consul-General in Boston, as Ambassador to Austria and Saudi Arabia, and as a diplomat for the Japanese government, the UN, and other international organizations in Washington, D.C., Geneva, Tel Aviv, New York, Manila, and Bern. Between 2003 and 2006, he was Under Secretary General of the UN for Disarmament Affairs, and he was also a member of the Advisory Board to the International Commission on Nuclear Nonproliferation and Disarmament and Director-General for Arms Control and Science Affairs in Tokyo. Amb. Abe has taught international relations and arms control at Sophia and Tokyo Universities and has published numerous papers on nuclear nonproliferation and disarmament.

Abraham, Spencer image
Biography :

Prior to becoming Secretary of Energy in 2001, Mr. Abraham served as a United States Senator from Michigan from 1995-2001 where he was the author of 22 pieces of legislation signed into law - an unprecedented accomplishment for a freshman Senator.

Amano, Yukiya image
Affiliation : IAEA
Position : Director General
Biography :

Amano was born in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, in 1947. He started his studies at the University of Tokyo in 1968. After graduating from the Faculty of Law, he joined the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in April 1972.In 1973–1974, he studied at the University of Franche-Comté and in 1974–1975, at the University of Nice, France. Amano held different posts in the foreign ministry such as the Director of the Science Division and Director of the Nuclear Energy Division in 1993. As a member of the Diplomatic service, he was posted in the Embassies of Japan in Vientiane, Washington and Brussels, in the Delegation of Japan to the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva and was Consul General of Japan in Marseille. In August 2002, he was appointed Director-General for Arms Control and Scientific Affairs, and in August 2004, he was appointed Director-General of the Disarmament, Nonproliferation and Science Department. In 2005, Amano served as the ambassador from Japan to the IAEA. From September 2005 to September 2006, Amano served as the Chairman of the IAEA Board of Governors. On 2 July 2009, he was elected by the Board of Governors as Director General for the IAEA


Antonov, Anatoly I. image
Affiliation : The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation
Position : Deputy Minister
Biography :

PhD in Economics, Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary. In 1978 he graduated from the Moscow State Institute of International Relations. He served for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) of the USSR and Russia in various positions at central office and abroad over 30 years. Since 2004 - Director of the Department for Security Affairs and Disarmament of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. He has broad experience in negotiation processes. He was a head of Russian government delegations at negotiations on the Treaty on Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, Review of Inhumane Weapons Convention, Elimination of Chemical Weapons Convention, Elimination of Biological Weapons Convention, Treaty on Strategic Offensive Arms. He was the head of Russian delegation at the talks with the U.S. on new START treaty. From February 2, 2011 to December 28, 2016 he held the position of a Deputy Minister of Defence of the Russian Federation. In this post he oversaw the issues of international military cooperation and organization of contacts between the Ministry of Defence and military agencies of other states. On December 28, 2016 President Vladimir Putin appointed him as Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation. He is currently responsible for the military and political issues. PIR Center Advisory Board member since 2000. Member of the SuPR (Sustainable Partnership with Russia) Group since 2009. Member of the PIR Center EKS Working Group on International Cooperation in Mass Destruction Weapon Nonproliferation and Physical Nuclear Safety since 2012.

Bayadilov, Ergali image
Biography :

Mr. Bayadilov was born in the Severo-Kazakhstansky Oblast of the USSR in 1946. He graduated in 1970 from the Urals Polytechnic Institute in Yekaterinburg, specializing in experimental nuclear physics. Completed graduate work in 1976 at the P.N. Lebedev Institute of Physics. He is a Candidate in Physics and Mathematical Sciences and has published nearly 60 scientific works.

Beck, Michael image
Biography :

Beck heads the Center’s research program on export control, which includes projects evaluating both national export control systems and multilateral export control regimes. Dr. Beck has published widely on export control and Russian strategic trade and security policy.

Bunn, Matthew image
Biography :

Before joining the Kennedy School in January 1997, he served for three years as an adviser to the Office of Science and Technology Policy, where he played a major role in U.S. policies related to the control and disposition of weapons-usable nuclear materials in the U.S. and the former Soviet Union, and directed a secret study for President Clinton on security for nuclear materials in Russia.

Cirincione, Joseph image
City : Washington D.C.
Affiliation : President, Ploughshares Fund
Biography :

President of the Ploughshares Fund. Cirincione had previously served as Vice President for National Security and International Policy at the Center for American Progress in Washington, DC, and for eight years as the director for nonproliferation at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. He is the author of Bomb Scare: The History and Future of Nuclear Weapons (2007) and Deadly Arsenals: Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Threats (2006). He is on the adjunct faculty of the Georgetown University School of Foreign Service, where he teaches in the Master of Science in Foreign Service Program, and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. He has written over 200 articles on defense issues, produced two DVDs on proliferation, appears frequently in the media, and has given over 150 lectures around the world in the past two years. He is the author of Bomb Scare: The History and Future of Nuclear Weapons (Columbia University Press, Spring 2007). He is the co-author of Contain and Engage: A New Strategy for Resolving the Iranian Nuclear Crisis (March 2007), two editions of Deadly Arsenals: Nuclear, Biological and Chemical Threats (2005 and 2002), Universal Compliance: A Strategy for Nuclear Security (March 2005) and WMD in Iraq, (January 2004). He has held positions at the Henry L. Stimson Center, the U.S. Information Agency, and the Center for Strategic and International Studies. He is an honors graduate of Boston College and holds a Masters of Science with highest honors from the Georgetown School of Foreign Service. He is happily married with two children. PIR Center Advisory Board member since 2004. Member of the Sustainable Partnership with Russia (SuPR) Group since 2009.


Dewes, Kate image
Biography :

Kate Dewes has coordinated the South Island Regional Office of the Aotearoa /New Zealand Peace Foundation from her home in Christchurch for 20 years. She taught Peace Studies from 1986-1997 at the University of Canterbury.

Diakov Anatoly image
Biography :

Doctor of Physics and Mathematics, Member of PIR Center Advisory Board. Anatoly Diakov specializes in quantum radiophysics, physics of lasers, nonequilibrium physics. He has over 40 scientific publications.

Diaz-Balart, Fidel image
Biography :

Chairman of the Cuban Atomic Energy Commission from 1980 to 1992. Educated in Russia and holds a Ph.D. in physics and mathematical sciences from the Kurchatov Atomic Energy Institute. In 1984-1993 was head of the department of physical sciences at the Cuban Academy of Sciences.

Dvorkin, Vladimir Z. image
City : Moscow
Affiliation : Professor, Major General (retired), Chief Research Associate, Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations (IMEMO)
Biography :

Professor. Major General (Ret.), Doctor of Technical Sciences, a top military expert, General Dvorkin was one of the main authors of the Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces and Strategic Missile Forces policy documents. He participated as an expert in the preparation of the SALT II, INF, START I, and START II treaties for many years, and made a noticeable contribution to the formation of the Soviet and Russian position at the negotiations on the limitation and reduction of strategic weapons. He participated in the testing of the first Soviet nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines and the first submerged launches of ballistic missiles. He is an active member of the Russian Academy of Missile and Artillery Sciences, the Academy of Military Sciences, the Russian Engineering Academy, the International Engineering Academy, and the Academy of Cosmonautics. He is the author of more than 350 academic papers and numerous articles. His academic interests include missile dismantlement issues, combating terrorism, and nuclear safety and security. PIR Center Advisory Board member since 2003.

Eggert, Konstantin von image
City : Moscow
Affiliation : Journalist
Biography :

Famous Russian journalist. Before September of 2013 - Deputy Editor-in-Chief of the Kommersant FM radio station, before March of 2013 - political observer at the Kommersant FM radio station. He took interviews from numerous politicians including Sergey Lavrov and Vaclav Havel. Member of the Royal Institute of International Relations (London, United Kingdom), member of editorial board of the Carnegie Moscow Center's journal Pro et Contra. Earlier - Head of the BBC Russian service. PIR Center Advisory Board member since 2002. Member of PIR Center International Expert Group since 2006.

Einhorn, Robert image
City : USA
Affiliation : Senior Fellow, Brookings Institution
Biography :

Before joining Brookings in May 2013, served as the U.S. Department of State special advisor for nonproliferation and arms control, a position created by Secretary of State Hillary Clinton in 2009. Between 2001 and 2009, was a senior advisor at the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), where directed the Proliferation Prevention Program. Prior to joining CSIS, was assistant secretary of state for nonproliferation from 1999 to 2001, deputy assistant secretary of state for political-military affairs from 1992 to 1999, and a member of the State Department policy planning staff from 1986 to 1992. Between 1972 and 1986, held various positions at the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA), including as ACDA’s representative to the strategic arms reduction talks with the Soviet Union. PIR Center Advisory Board member since 2007. 

Ellis, Dori image
Biography :

Dori Ellis has responsibility for Sandia’s international programs in nonproliferation and nuclear materials control; collaborations with more than 100 countries in various training, confidence building and monitoring activities; arms control analysis; the Cooperative Monitoring Center; and various activities in combating terrorism.

Errera, Philippe image
Biography :

Philippe Errera holds his current post since April 2003. Previously, he served as counselor in charge of politico-military affairs at the French Embassy in Washington, D.C (1999-2003), at the U.S. Department of State's Bureau of European Affairs (1998-99) and at the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (1996-98), in the Office of European Common Foreign and Security Policy. He holds degrees from the Paris Institute of Political Studies and the French National School of Government.

Estivill, Alejandro image
Biography :

Alejandro I. Estivill was born in Mexico City and holds a first degree in Hispanic Literature (Universidad Nacional Autуnoma de Mйxico). He obtained an MA and a PhD in Literature at El Colegio de Mexico. He also holds an MA in Diplomatic Studies.

Evron, Yair image
Biography :

Professor Yair Evron teaches International Relations at the Department of Political Science, Tel-Aviv University, and is heading a graduate program in Security Studies at the same university. Received his M.J. at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and a Ph.D. in International Relations at the London School of Economics and Political Science.

Fedorov Alexander Valentinovich image
City : Moscow
Expertise :
Information security
Biography :

Alexander has a Ph.D. in Physical and Mathematical Sciences. Following his studies at Moscow State University, he worked in various government agencies, where he worked on disarmament and WMD nonproliferation issues. More recently he has been actively studying and working on international and information security. He is the editor and co-author of the monographs Information Challenges in National and International Security and Superterrorism: New Challenge for a New CenturyPIR Center Advisory Board member since 2001. Member of the PIR Center EKS Working Group on International Information Security and Global Internet Governance since 2012. 

Gennady Evstafiev image
Biography :

Lieutenant-General (ret.) Evstafiev (25.08.1938 – 19.02.2013), a person of great fortitude, wisdom, and professionalism, dedicated all his health, strength, and intellect to serving his country and strengthening international security. We are very honored to have been able to work with such an amazing and knowledgeable person.

One of the patriarchs of nuclear nonproliferation has left us. No matter what office he held, Gennady Mikhailovich made considerable contributions to strengthen the nonproliferation and disarmament regime.  From 1981 to 1985, he served as Special Assistant to the UN Secretary-General, and from 1999-2000 as a member of the Secretary-General’s Advisory Board on Disarmament Matters. He was an active participant in the historical 1995 NPT Review and Extension Conference, as well as the Moscow Nuclear Safety and Security Summit in 1996.

Gennady Mikhailovich played a key role in preparing the Russian Foreign Intelligence Service’s public reports “A New Challenge After the Cold War: Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction” (1993) and “The Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons: Problems of Extension” (1995), which are still used today as key reference materials in the field. To this day, the publication of these reports remains an example of special services’ analytic work and ability to engage the public in dialogue. Thanks to the work of these authors, the world saw that Russia bases its arguments on facts and, no matter the circumstances, independently participates in the formation of a global nonproliferation and disarmament agenda.

Lieutenant-General Evstafiev was one of the people who, during the country’s hardest times, not only stayed dedicated to the task at hand, but was also able find solutions to global problems in a spirit of collaboration and while protecting national interests. From 1986 to 1991, Gennady Mikhailovich was one of the head Soviet delegates during the negotiation of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE Treaty) in Vienna before he went on to work for the Foreign Intelligence Service. From 2000-2003, he served at the Russian Permanent Mission to NATO, where he worked on combating terrorism and WMD proliferation. After retiring in 2003, he became a Senior Advisor and later Senior Vice President at the PIR Center, where he continued to dedicate himself to arms control issues and developing new security mechanisms in Europe.

For Gennady Mikhailovich, strengthening the nonproliferation and disarmament regime wasn’t just political rhetoric, it was a subject of in-depth analysis with the goal of finding optimal, balanced solutions. Back when people had essentially stopped thinking about saving the world from weapons of mass destruction, before big speeches and initiatives revived the topic, Gennady Mikhailovich published the article “Disarmament Returns” (Security Index 2007), in which he not only declared the acute relevance of this problem, he defined the lines along which this discussion takes place today. “The main mistake that people make is they fear today’s troubles more than tomorrow’s,” he said, and underlined that, “this means only one thing – we must learn to preempt the consequences of new military technology and classes of weapons with timely political and legal measures.”

This is precisely what Gennady Mikhailovich worked on at the PIR Center. He co-authored a 2005 monograph Unmanned aerial vehicles: history, application, threat of proliferation, and prospects of development – the first work to define the importance of this issue for Russia. Information security, nuclear energy and nonproliferation, Central Asia – Evstafiev was a part of these and many other PIR projects from the outset. Dozens of publications, hundreds of interviews and comments to the press – he was constantly working.

He will most certainly be remembered, today and forever more, by dozens of students – young diplomats, officers, and scholars, those for whom he was a mentor at work or during an internship, those who listened to his every word at Summer School and other training courses.

What did young scholars expect, and then receive, from their senior colleague? During conversations he would say such things like, “Be sure to pay attention to this question… It may be worth taking a closer look here… You should read this book here…” and then a new idea would form, and we would begin to see a pointed problem in its greater historical and political context, and the student would morph into a specialist in front of our eyes. A graduate of the Oriental Studies Department at Leningrad State University, Gennady Mikhailovich completed the colossal school of life and carried with him the best traditions of analysis and the deep understanding of regional and global processes. Along the way, he passed on these traditions and mental discipline to his students, for which we will be ever grateful.

Gennady Mikhailovich played a significant role at the PIR Center. He was with PIR even before its founding and stayed the course through our development. Over the course of almost 10 years, he served as a Senior Advisor and Senior Vice President of the PIR Center. With his direct participation, PIR expanded the scope of its work, transitioned from Yaderny Kontrol to Security Index, developed a new education and training program, and attracted new partners and friends. Each of us will treasure our memories of interacting with this extraordinary person, colleague, and mentor.

Photo gallery 

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Segments from the program “What is to be done? New nuclear states,” Kultura TV channel with Gennady Evstafiev’s participation, October 29, 2006 (in Russian).

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Gottemoeller, Rose image
City : США
Affiliation : Distinguished Visiting Scholar at the CNS; Payne Distinguished Lecturer at the CISAC; Research Fellow at the Hoover Institution
Biography :

Rose Gottemoeller was sworn in as the Assistant Secretary of State for the Bureau of Arms Control, Verification and Compliance, on April 6, 2009. She was the chief negotiator of the New Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (New START) with the Russian Federation. Since 2000, she had been with the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. She most recently was a senior associate in the Carnegie Russia & Eurasia Program in Washington, D.C., where she worked on U.S.–Russian relations and nuclear security and stability. She also served as the director of the Carnegie Moscow Center from January 2006 – December 2008. Before joining the Endowment in October 2000, Ms. Gottemoeller was deputy undersecretary for defense nuclear nonproliferation in the U.S. Department of Energy. Previously, she served as the department's assistant secretary for nonproliferation and national security, with responsibility for all nonproliferation cooperation with Russia and the Newly Independent States. In 1994-1997, deputy director of the International Institute for Strategic Studies (London, United Kingdom). In 1993-1994, director for Russia, Ukraine, and Eurasia Affairs of the U.S. National Security Council. Research interests: nuclear nonproliferation and strategic security. PIR Center Advisory Board member since 1994.

Hammad, Fawzi image
Biography :

Former Head of the Atomic Energy Authority. Chairman, National Committee for New and Advanced Materials, Academy of Scientific Research and Technology of Egypt. BSc (Chem. Eng.) North Carolina State; MSc (Met) Stanford; PhD (Materials science) Nottingham. Member of boards of many scientific and engineering organisations in Egypt. Author of the numerous publications on nonproliferation.

Harmon, Charles image
Biography :

Charles D. Harmon is currently on assignment from Sandia National Laboratories as a Program Manager at the U.S. DOE National Nuclear Security Agency’s Office of International Material Protection and Cooperation responsible for the MPC&A Educational and Training Projects.

Huh, Nam Sung image
Biography :

Born in 1947. Educational Experience: Korea Military Academy (BS), Seoul National University(BA), The Ohio State University, U.S.A. : M.A. & Ph. D. in Military History. Careers: - Professor, Korea Military Academy, Staff for International Security Affairs, Presidential Office, ROK, Assistant to the Director-Gen., Presidential Security Service, ROK, Advisory Committee Member, National Security Council, ROK, Chief, North Korean Affairs, RINSA, KNDU, Director of the Research Institute on Security Affairs, KNDU.

Ignatiev, Oleg image
Biography :

Oleg Ignatiev coordinates the issues pertaining to observance of international obligations under the Biological Weapons Convention. In 1992 –1998 he was an expert of UNMOVIC.

Johnson, Rebecca image
City : London, UK
Affiliation : Founding Director, Acronym Institute
Biography :

PhD.  With a background in physics, an MA in Far Eastern studies and a PhD in international relations, she has monitored treaty developments, including the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) from 1994 to the present. With a varied background that has included grassroots activism, campaign organising and consultancy work for the United Nations, the European Union and other government bodies, she was senior advisor for the International WMD (Blix) Commission 2004-06 and is currently Vice Chair of the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN). She also serves as a special advisor to various international organisations.The United Nations in May 2009 published her book on civil society and government strategies to achieve the CTBT, titled Unfinished Business. PIR Center Advisory Board member since 1994.

Kalinina, Natalia I. image
City : Moscow, Russia
Affiliation : Senior Researcher, Center for International Security, Primakov National Research Institute of World Economy and International Relations (IMEMO
Biography :

Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor. One of the leading experts in the field of chemical and biological disarmament. Experienced scientist, auditor, multilateral person, whose reasearches in biologics, chemistry, policy, economy are of invaluable contribution to the science and for further reasearch perspectives.  From 1994 to 2007 worked for central organs of political departments of the Russian Federation, including the post of Assistant to the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation in 2003-2004. and Deputy head of the inspection of the Accounts Chamber of the Russian Federation in 2005-2007. 

Kenyon, Ian image
Biography :

In 1976 he joined the United Kingdom Disarmament Delegation in Geneva. From 1982-85 he was Assistant then Head of Nuclear Energy Department at the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in London, where responsibilities included policy on nuclear non-proliferation (including the 1985 NPT Review Conference) and the first stages of negotiation of what became MTCR.

Khlopkov, Anton V image
City : Moscow
Affiliation : Director, Center for Energy and Security Studies (CENESS)
Biography :

Member of the International Institute for Strategic Studies (London, UK). Highly qualified expert specializing in Iran's nuclear program and Russian-Iranian cooperation in the sphere of nuclear energy. His research to date has also focused on regional aspects of WMD nonproliferation and Global Partnership issues. Has a great deal of experience in publishing. Author of the monographs Iran's Nuclear Missile Ambitions and Russian National Interests (2006) and The Iranian Nuclear Program and Russian-American Relations (2001). 

Kuchins, Andrew image
Biography :

Andrew C. Kuchins conducts research and writes widely on Russian foreign and security policy. He is a member of the governing council of the Program on Basic Research and Higher Education in Russia, the advisory committee of Washington Profile, and the editorial board of the journal, Demokratizatsiya.

Lebedev, Vladimir V. image
City : Moscow, Russia
Affiliation : Adviser to the Mayor of Moscow
Biography :

PhD in history. State Councillor of Russian Federation, 3rd class. In 1980, graduated from the Moscow State Institute of International Relations (MGIMO). In 1985, defended his PhD thesis on the topic "Social practices in the activities of the impact of US diplomacy". 1981-1996  served at the Central Office of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and on missions abroad. 1996-1998  worked in the Presidential Administration, the last position held — Assistant Secretary on Foreign Affairs of the Russian Security Council. 1979-1981 — fellow of The Center for International Studies at MGIMO. 1998-1999  Deputy Director of the Center for Russia's national security at the Moscow State University. Since 1999 works at the Moscow government. 2000-2013  Deputy Head of Department of International Relations of Moscow, Deputy Head of the Department for External Economies and International Relations of Moscow. Since 2013  Advisor to the Mayor of Moscow. In 2013, became a director of the Moscow Compatriot House. Author of several papers on theory and history of international relations. Author of the Encyclopedia of protocol and etiquette. Research interests: the settlement of conflicts and crises; Russian national security; theory and practice of foreign policy and diplomacy. Member of the Advisory Board of the PIR Center since 2000. Advisor to the Mayor of Moscow; director of the Moscow House of Compatriots.

Levite, Ariel image
Biography :

In 2000-2002 was visiting Fellow at the Center for International Security and Cooperation (CISAC), and the co-leader of the CISAC Discriminate Force project. In 1999- 2000 Deputy National Security Advisor (Defense Policy) and Head of the Bureau of International Security at the Israeli Ministry of Defense.

Maslin, Evgeny P. image
City : Moscow
Affiliation : PIR Center Executive Board member, Consultant ANO ASPECT-CONVERSION
Biography :

Colonel General (Ret.), one of the founders of Russia's programs for international cooperation in the dismantlement of surplus armaments, an accomplishment recognized by the award of several government honors, including the Order of the Red Star, Order for Service to the Fatherland, and many medals. A leading expert on nuclear security, nuclear weapons reductions, and verification mechanisms. Laureate of the Russian State Prize. Worked in USSR/Russian Ministry of Defense organizations for more than 40 years, including from 1992-1997 as head of the Russian Ministry of Defense 12th Main Directorate, which is responsible for the security of nuclear munitions. Author of many publications in Russian and English, including articles on nuclear security, the Cooperative Threat Reduction program, and nuclear nonproliferation. He was awarded the Order of Military Merit and the Order of Courage.

Moltz, Clay image
Biography :

Formerly, he directed the Newly Independent States Nonproliferation Program at CNS. He is a specialist in U.S.-Russian strategic arms control, space weapons/missile defense issues, nuclear submarines, and Northeast Asian proliferation issues.

Perkovich, George image
Biography :

Until arriving at the Carnegie Endowment in January 2002, George Perkovich was deputy director for programs and director of the Secure World Program of the W. Alton Jones Foundation. He oversaw a total of $26 million in annual grantmaking and also designed and implemented initiatives to further the board’s mandate of reducing the risk of nuclear war. He was with the foundation from 1990 through 2001.

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